Clouse, Robert G., ed. Wealth and Poverty: Four Christian Views of Economics. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1984.
1. FREE MARKET CAPITALISM 自由市場資本主義：Gary North
2. THE GUIDED-MARKET SYSTEM 引導市場：William E. Diehl
3. DECENTRALIST ECONOMICS 非中央化經濟：Art Gish
4. CENTRALIST ECONOMICS 中央化經濟：John Gladwin
洛桑信約 （1974年）5. 基督徒的社會責任
我 們確信，上帝是全人類的創造者及審判者，所以我們應當共同負擔起祂對人類社會的公義及和好的關注，以及對那些受各種壓迫的人的自由的關注。因為每個人都是 按上帝的形像造的，不論種族、宗教、膚色、文化、階層、性別或年齡，每個人都有內在的尊嚴，所以應當受到尊重及服事，而不應受到剝削。我們在此表示懺悔， 因我們忽略了社會關懷，有時認為佈道與社會關懷是互相排斥的。儘管與人和好並不等同於與上帝和好，社會關懷也不等同於佈道，政治解放也不等同於救恩，我們 還是確信：福音佈道和社會政治關懷都是我們基督徒的責任。因為這兩方面是我們在神論和人論的教義上，以及我們對鄰舍的愛和對基督的順服的必要體現。救恩的信息也包含對各種形式的疏離、壓迫及歧視的審判。無論何處有罪惡與不公正的事，我們都要勇敢地斥責。當人們接受基督時，他們就得以重生，進入祂的國度；他 們不僅必須努力在這不義的世界中彰顯上帝的公義，還要傳揚祂的公義。我們所宣告的救恩應當在個人生命和社會生活各方面都改變我們。信心沒有行為就是死的。 （徒17：26, 31；創18：25；賽1：17；詩45：7；創1：26-27；雅3：9；利19：18；路6：27, 35；雅2：14-26；約3：3, 5；太5：20；太6：33；林後3：18；雅2：20）
- 基斯韋特（Christopher J. H. Wright）
整個福音（The Whole Gospel）
1. FREE MARKET CAPITALISM 自由市場資本主義：Gary North (pp. 27-65)
“The topic of wealth and poverty should not be discussed apart from a consideration of the law of God and its relationship to the covenants, for it is in God's law that we find the Bible's blueprint for economics. Biblical justice, biblical law, and economic growth are intimately linked. The crucial section of Scripture which explains this relationship is Deuteronomy 28.” P. 27 『公義、律法和經濟增長』
”Life and land: Here are the two fundamental assets in any economic system. Human labor, combined with natural resources over time, is the foundation of all productivity. The third familiar feature of economic analysis, capital, is actually the combination of land plus labor over time.“ p.28 『生命、地土、自然資源、勞力和資本』
Long-term economic growth is based on men's honoring the explicit terms of God's law. The stages are as follows:
1. God's grace in providing life, land, and law
2. Society's adherence to the external terms of God's law
3. External blessings in response to this faithfulness
4. Temptation: the lure of autonomy
a. Capitulation that leads to external judgment; or
b. Resistance that leads to further economic growth (p. 30)
Visible success is a paradox: It can testify to two radically different ethical conditions. P. 31
A great debate has raged for over a century within the camp of the economists: "Is capitalism morally valid?" Marxists and socialists ask this question and then answer it: no. "But capitalism is efficient," respond the defenders of the free market. P. 31
Personal good vs common good
They reject the operating presupposition of free market economic analysis: methodological individualism. As methodological collectivists, they deny the right of men to use their property against the "common good."
Problem: Who defines the common good?
The Bible teaches neither collectivism nor individualism; it proclaims methodological covenantalism.
The fundamental issue is ethical. The question of efficiency is a subordinate one. P. 32
One reason why the critics have been so
successful in their attack against the academic economists' hypothetically
neutral defense of the free market is this: Hardly anyone in the secular world really
believes any longer that moral or intellectual neutrality is possible.
One of the most important facts of economics is this: Employers compete against employers, while workers compete against workers. 35
Similarly, workers compete against workers. They want jobs. 36
Theft is a self-conscious, willful act of coercive wealth redistribution, and therefore it is a denial of the legitimacy and reliability of God's moral and economic law-order. The immediate economic effect of widespread theft in society is the creation of insecurity. 38
Godly preaching against theft is therefore a form of capital investment for the society as a whole. 39
God raises the risks (”price") of theft to thieves. 40
"We Eat; They Starve" 國際間的貧富懸殊？
Consider the words of theologian-historian Ronald Sider, whose best-selling book, Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger, has become one of the most influential books on seminary and Christian college
campuses allover the United States.
Americans use 191 times as much energy per person as the average Nigerian.
One-third of the world's people have an annual per capita income of $100 or less. In the United States it is now about $5,600 per person. P. 44
A Zero-Sum Economy? 零和經濟？
A zero-sum game is a game in which the winners' earnings come exclusively from the losers. 52
The important issue, however, is the Montaigne dogma. It views the world as a zero-sum game, in which winnings exactly balance losses. P. 53 (蒙田The Montaigne Dogma is the belief that one's profit is another's loss.)
The answer to the first question is relatively simple in theory: We need to adopt the biblical principle of inheritance. All sons receive part of the inheritance, with the eldest son obtaining a double portion, since he has the primary responsibility for caring for aged parents.
By instituting the biblical mode of inheritance, the great landed estates of the Latin American world would be broken up. P. 55
God's law is clear enough: The family is the primary agency of welfare-in education, law enforcement (by teaching biblical law and self-government), care for the aged. The church, as the agency for collecting the tithe, also has social welfare obligations. The civil government has almost none. Even in the case of the most pitiable people in Israel, the lepers, the State had only a negative function, namely, to quarantine them from other citizens. The State provided no medical care or other tax-supported aid (Lev 13 and 14). P. 57
A Guided-Market Response （William E. Diehl） p. 66-72
The whole concept of the Jubilee year flies in the face of private property rights as we know them. For, in the year of the Jubilee, which was every fifty years, all slaves were to be freed, all debts canceled, and all land returned to the original owners. William Lazareth in Work as Praise concludes from this, "Private property, therefore is never an absolute right in Holy Scripture. As an aid to personal freedom it is a relative civil right that is always conditioned by the will of God and the needs of the community. The
need to serve justifies the right to possess in God's created order of life-in-community. Nowhere does the Bible sanction the accumulation of economic power and possessions as ends in themselves." P. 68
Furthermore, North makes no mention of the basic impediment to a free-market system: human sinfulness. If all the people of this earth were Christians, which they are not, and if all Christians lived up to the biblical legalisms, which they do not, one might consider the possibility of the author's vision. But we are daily reminded of our basic self-serving nature, and we constantly turn to God for forgiveness. 69
An interesting feature of the essay is the equating of taxation with stealing. 69
The North essay is critical of government inefficiency and bureaucracy. With this criticism all of us can agree. 70
North asks, "Is the poverty of the Third World the fault of the West?" (p. 44). He proceeds to prove that Third World nations are responsible for their own poverty and that therefore we do not really help solve their basic problems by sending them food. P. 71
A Decentralist Response (Art Gish) p. 73-79
The center of North's faith seems to be in the book of Deuteronomy. He would come to different conclusions if he started with Jesus and the New Covenant and then looked at the Old Covenant law in that new light. North tells us that God wants to bless us, and he calls us to covenantal faithfulness. Surely this is right. And it is true that faithfulness brings good while sin brings suffering. But we learn in the Bible that faithfulness also leads to suffering and the cross. P.73
In capitalism workers and employers are competing most of the time. Employers are trying to squeeze as much as possible out of the workers, and the workers are trying to get by with doing as little as possible. 74
But he chooses to ignore the redistribution of wealth called for in the Jubilee (Lev 25), a call repeated in the New Testament. 75
The fourteen families who control El Salvador would continue to be in control, and the Indian peasants who had their land stolen from them would remain landless and poor. It has been more than fifty years since the land was stolen from them, and it is well past time for redistribution of that stolen wealth. 75
『1979年10月28日，薩爾瓦多內戰爆發：被稱為『火山之國』的薩爾瓦多位於中美洲，面積2萬多平方公哩。近50年來，薩爾瓦多一直由親美軍人實行獨裁統治，國家的政治權力和經濟命脈一直掌握在本國的『14個家族』和以美國為主的外國壟斷資本家手中。近10多年來，這『14個家族』變成了『90個家族』，他們佔人口不到5%，卻佔有全國90%的土地和國家的大部分財富，廣大人民則過著極為貧困的生活。極端的經濟不平等孕育著越來越嚴重的社會動亂，軍政府的獨裁統治也引起人民的強烈不滿和反抗。』【中美洲北部的一個國家】 “Juan Jose Dalton makes the case that wealth today is not controlled by 14 families, but by 8 financial conglomerates.”
North shows a lot of concern about theft, but he says nothing of how the rich steal from the poor, how the multinational corporations rip off the people. "Is it not the rich who oppress you?" (Jas 2:6). P. 76
Most of the stealing (and murder) in the world is legal and is done by those in power. Sometimes it is called a shrewd business practice, profitable investment or overpricing. P. 76
The earth is the Lord's. It is not mine. Capitalism, that is, the system of private property and competition, is itself thievery; and it encourages theft by rewarding only winners and ignoring the needs of the losers.
Competition encourages theft. P. 76
North implies that taxation, at least above ten per cent, is theft. How can a Christian protest the taxes of the welfare state and be silent about the massive amount of taxes taken by the military? P. 77
North too easily dismisses those who preach ecological stewardship and social justice as guilt manipulators. How much increased economic output does North think our ecosystem can support? 79
A Centralist Response （John Gladwin） 80-82
I would agree with the fundamental assertion in this paper that the debate is about ethical issues.
In terms of mood I was not sure whether the paper wanted us to
return to the practice of Old Testament social life or to seventeenth century Puritan ideals embodied in some of the early American experience. 80
It appears to be founded in the religion of a fairly legalistic understanding of the Old Covenant. As Christians, however, we are called to live a new life and are to view the Old Testament in a new way in the light of the redemption experienced in Jesus Christ. 81
Unfortunately, in a fallen world much that goes on is unjust.
Nevertheless, I believe that this thesis is right in asserting that our debate is about ethics. I would add that it is also and relatedly about theology. It is the understanding of Scripture, of God, of the world, of history and of the gospel that I would wish to pursue further in discussion with Gary North. I suspect we have some serious differences in these areas and would have to work hard to find common ground in our shared commitment to Jesus Christ. 82
A Guided-Market System （William E. Diehl）85-109
A second theme which runs throughout our Scriptures is God's call for justice. Not only would God have us be just in our treatment of one another, but he calls us to create political and social systems in which people are justly treated. 88
Jesus also dealt with individual and corporate justice. His parables were full of examples of just and unjust people. But he also condemned the systemic injustice of his day. 88
What are the biblical dimensions of justice? To care for the poor, the hungry, the sick, the lame, the orphans, the widow, the prisoner, the stranger and the children. How is justice distributed? By meeting people's immediate needs through charity and by ultimately eliminating the need for charity. 89
Freedom, justice and responsibility-by these three imperatives we will look at the guided-market system. 89
Our economic system is built on several principles. The first is that there is private ownership of the means of production-a capitalistic system, if you will. Second, there is the principle that, given its freedom, the competitive market will decide what products are to be made (or what services are to be offered), how they will be produced (or offered), and who will get the benefit of the products (or services). This concept is called the market system, or free enterprise. The third element of the U.S. economic system is that it does not have unbridled freedom. It is subjected to some controls and limits. The controls are provided mostly by government which, in our case, is a democratic system. 90-91
People should be free to make their own choices, in terms of both what they put into the economic system and what they take out of it. All people should be free to develop their full potential as creatures of God. They should not be coerced directly or indirectly into doing that which they really do not want to do. They should have a free political structure in which they can decide the extent to which they wish to have their government curb their freedom.
For there to be justice in an economic system, there must be a concern for the welfare of all citizens. In an economy in which everyone is free to compete, it is not fair that some are burdened by handicaps not of their own making. Adjustments must be made for those with physical handicaps to have equal opportunity to compete in the economic system. Factors such as sex, race, religion or ethnic background can become barriers against free access to the economy, and must be guarded against. There also should be no exploitation of the young or old. All people should have access to quality education. 91
There is another side to the issue of who is to provide welfare services, one which is not directly related to the impact of these services on the nation's economy. It is the matter of the effect and means of delivering such services. One of the criticisms of elements of the American welfare programs is that they have created a dependency among the people who were to have been helped. 96
The Role of the Christian
There is no economic system which is inherently Christian in nature.
All systems fall short of expectations; they frequently defy the best efforts of good people who try to make them work.
If one agrees that the biblical principles of freedom, justice and responsibility are central elements of Christian life, then it does seem that the guided-market system, or the democratic-capitalistic system as we more commonly call it, offers the greatest potential for maximizing these virtues. 101-102
With respect to the issue of justice, Christians must speak out loudly and strongly. 102
With whom do we work to ensure that we have a just society --individuals, private-sector organizations or government? The answer is, all three. All segments of society must contribute to the quality of life. 103
If we as Christians respect freedom, we should be careful not to create dependency relationships among the poor. Every effort must be made to break dependency and to develop human potential and self-respect. 103
有知足的生活習慣和態度Lifestyle of Enough
In this age of hedonism, crass materialism and excessive consumption, Christians can make a theological statement that, as God's stewards, we are to use for ourselves only what is necessary. We will conserve resources whenever possible and care for the environment around us. We will be modest in the selection of the homes we live in, the cars we drive, the clothes we wear and the food we eat. Of course, we can enjoy good restaurants, good music, the arts, travel and vacation. But for all these things, moderation and modesty should prevail. We live this style not because others have less than we do, but because as stewards of God's creation we should take only what we need.
As a by-product to living a lifestyle of enough, we may well discover that we do have extra money to direct into causes which will help the disadvantaged of the world. If so, we can give thanks for that, too.
No one economic system has been ordained by God. While the Bible does challenge the economic misbehavior of individuals in areas such as stealing, cheating, exploitation of others, miserliness, the worship of wealth, indifference to the poor and lack of compassion, there are no economic structures which are clearly recommended for all time. Over the centuries it has been shown that Christians can live lives of faith within all kinds of economic structures. Therefore, it is important that Christians build into their economic systems those principles which are basic to the Christian faith.
If one agrees that the biblical principles of freedom, justice and responsibility are the most important ingredients of any economic structure, then the guided-market system comes closest to providing for all three. 107-108
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