保羅禁止女性參與教導職事嗎?
Paul Forbids Christian Women to have a Teaching Ministry:

Yes, No , or Otherwise


陳信行

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1. 引言

在尋保羅對女性教導職事的看法,必需檢視其直接跟「女性」、「教導」及「職事」有關之經文且了解該教導背後之神學基礎。[1]除了將經文置於神學的框架下嘗試和諧 (harmonize) 似乎矛盾之處,亦需要考慮個別著作受眾、文化背景及著作處理之問題[2]否則便有落入隨己意釋經,忽略了作者原意之危機。[3]本文將先從初期教會時代之經文定義「教導」及「職事」,然後從文化及經角度討論與保羅禁止女性參與教導職事相關的經文,再檢視保羅宣教期間女性參與之職事,最後以保羅構想「在基督裡」的新創造作總結。

 

2. 定義

2.1 教導

聖經新約中「教導」一詞多翻譯自希臘字根διδάσκω,衍生出之意思涵括如教師、教會職位、[4]教導的行動、[5]所教導的內容等。[6]另外亦有使用κατηχέω一詞表達口述的教導,如林前十四19先知用悟性教導」,意思διδάσκω相通。[7]教導為將神已有之教訓及啟示清晰、有條理的向會眾講解,使之能夠學習之能力;亦在於為教會提供教義及道德上的規範。[8]例如於帖前四1-2,保羅將所該行的教授予信徒,並期望他們能依從教訓成為聖潔。雖然理論上屬靈之人均能參透屬靈之事,[9]但並非每一人都能有效地將領受傳達予他人。[10]相對於先知之講論乃根據即時性之啟示,新約中教師之職責在於解釋及應用已有之經文。[11]教導的內容除了關於耶穌為經文帶來的新詮釋外,[12]亦包括使徒所傳遞的訊息:保羅曾提醒哥林多教會記念他在各處各教會中怎樣教導人[13]亦吩咐提摩太在以所教會「教訓人、勸勉人」。[14]除使徒外,保羅明確指明教導職事必須交付能忠心教導之人,[15]並且要求選立長老 監督的條件為需「善於教導」。[16]

值得留意的是「教導」的職事並非局限於教會領袖或特定之崗位:[17]保羅在討論恩賜時四次提到「教師」或「教導」,[18]並且均指向所有參與聚會之信徒,不論性別,都能隨聖靈分配擁有或追求而得。[19]這種「教導」之恩賜,連同其他恩賜之目的,乃為「叫人得益處」、 「造就人」。[20]「教導」在這個視角下,乃每位信徒的責任,且存在於生活的每一個細節,並不著重於「教導」的環境是否公開或帶有權威性。[21]實際上,權威之所在不在於教導的行為,而是在於所教導的真理。[22]


2.2 職事

保羅書信中常以διακονία代表職事 (ministry) 或服侍 (service)[23]對保羅來說,職事乃學效基督於世上所行的並藉此建立教會。[24]初期教會將專注於實務性之服侍者稱為執事 (διάκονος)[25]從林前十二4-6的平行對比來看,職事恩賜功用一樣,都是多元、源自三為一之神、臨在於每一位信從,且目的為叫人得益處。[26]故此若將職事局限於崗位領袖的層面上,是跟保羅於哥林多書信的原則背道而馳。[27]職事既包括如監督、長老、執事等崗位;亦能於各樣恩賜的運用上體現。[28]主呼召每一位信徒投入到職事當中:當職事的對象為神時,常被稱為敬拜或侍奉;而當對象為他者時,便稱為服侍或職事。保羅常稱自己為神福音的僕人或執事;[29]除福音的事工,他同時亦參與實質性的職事如為耶路撒冷募捐。[30]總括而言,參與職事之人最能自然流露自己奉獻、犧牲及愛主精神的方法便是去服侍他人。[31]

 

3. 經文研究

本文將重點研究保羅關於禁止女性參與教導職事最直接的經文:提前二11-15[32]至於另外兩段學者經常討論的經文:林前十一及十四,並不會於本文作詳細討論。這是因為於林前十一中,保羅的重點為男女兩性間的關係[33]允許蒙頭之女性先知講道。[34]新約時期大部分先知之訊息均來自對已有經文的重新詮釋及應用,以提醒上帝子民於立約中的責任,具勸醒、勉勵、指引會眾的功用。[35]故此先知宣講神的訊息基本上是一種經文教導的事工;[36]其重要性不亞於使徒或教師。[37]至於林前十四,保羅鼓勵「各人」作公開、言語上的教導。[38]他所關注的為聚會中會眾運用言語恩賜的秩序及目標;[39]以及摒除自私、炫耀性的講道。[40]保羅或許因婦女水平不足、擾亂聚會氣氛的發問;[41]或許是基於她們僭越性的發言而勸婦女閉口不言,[42]但都不表示保羅傳遞的是一項跨文化及時空、絕對性之禁令去限制聖靈的工作。[43]

提前的分段大致如下:信首問候 (1-2);假教師與錯的教訓 (3-20);公共崇拜裡的合一 (1-15),當中再細分成有關禱告 (1-7) 及兩性的問題 (8-15);教會的監督與執事 (1-13);教會與真道 (14-16);異端、敬及提摩太的責任 (1-16)神家中的其他團體 (1-2);假教師的危機與對策 (2-21);結束祝福 (21)[44]保羅顯然地是就以所教會正面對種種問題如男人爭吵、女性不合宜之衣飾、寡婦不守道、信徒自大偏離真道等作出回應。[45]全書有35% 的篇幅是針對假教導而20% 針對女性,[46]反映保羅視女性及假教導之影響為重中之重。[47]

保羅於提前第二章起雖然似乎為聚會列下一連串守則,但這些守則乃為傳達基督徒群體如何於弱勢中履行使徒價值觀之大框架。[48]保羅著重於以所信徒之行為能否成為福音差事的推力,而不應是阻力。[49]基督教迅速的興起跟它的神信仰、提升女性地位的做法於執政者以致平民眼中顯然是帶顛覆性的。[50]為著信徒於異教大環境中生存,保羅必須使人知道基督徒其實是支持及尊重社會秩序。[51]保羅先從兩性外在姿勢及衣飾入手,然後再進到會眾內心的問題。[52]在女性衣飾方面,需留意到當時能有時間及資財去妝飾的應為不需要工作或富有的女性。[53]保羅勸導她們與其炫耀個人之美麗及財富,倒不如以善行反映敬、專注向神。[54]這是平行於希羅文化中視「自守」為女性重要的德行,其中包含自律的行為、對婚姻的忠貞及淑溫柔的表現。[55]由於教會在家中聚會,公共與私人、家庭與教會的界線根本不存在。[56]為了群體的聲譽,保羅認為婦女應繼續在教會中標榜順服與保持靜默的理想。[57]

「沉靜」(ἡσυχία) 一詞帶有自律、尊重、不打擾,甚至有存學習態度等候的意思;於新約其他四次的使用亦不代表完全靜默。[58]假使保羅要表達肅靜,他常使用的字是σιγάω[59]而且「學道」的方法不論是在猶太拉比學堂[60]還是希羅式的討論,都鼓勵學生發問。[61]在猶太的傳統上,女性一般是被禁止學習;[62]即使是妥拉亦非強制性需要讀。[63]反而她們的角色在於鼓勵其丈夫及兒子讀,自己再向丈夫請教。[64]在希羅的文化中,女性教育較得到重視。[65]雖然普遍教育主要圍繞持家之道,且止於十四至十五歲婚嫁之齡,[66]但她們仍不被禁止於任何途經的學習,甚至能於社會不同階層任職。[67]即便如此,普遍社會之識字率不超於10%,而當中大部分仍然為男性;[68]女性於公眾場合當教師之例子更是稀有。[69]保羅於此使用現在時態的「學道」,是整段經文唯一帶命令語氣的用字,反映經文的重心及他對女性學習的強調。[70]

至於「順服」(ὑποτάσσω) 一詞則存在相當大的詮釋空間:在新約38次的出現中既有指向人與人之間對等、雙向、甘心的順服;[71]亦有指向低位者向高位或被迫或自願的順服;[72]亦可指向對條例、建制的順服。[73]在希臘思想中,「順服」的重點不在於服從,而是在於維持穩定及規律的狀態。[74]故理解提前二11之「順服」應僅限於考慮配合上下文之提示。原文11節中以兩次「在」(ἐν) 將「沉默」及「順服」連繫至女性的學習態度。[75]除此以外,11-12節形成的扇形結構 (chiastic structure) 使重點放於「順服」上,既能同時形容上半部的學習心態,亦能形容下半部的禁令:即女性不講道及轄管男人為「順服」另一面的表現。[76]然而按接下來提前三5表明長老要運用權柄來管理教會的內容來看,女性不得轄管的「男人」應指向於當時文化通常為男性的教會長老 監督。[77]

接下來的問題是保羅所禁止的是兩項:女性不得作任何的教導及階級上不得「轄管」男人;還是一項:不許帶有「轄管」男性目的之教導?[78]從文法及結構上來看後者似乎更為有力。「轄管」一字需要為所有格 (genitive) 配上一直接受詞 (direct object),而「講道 / 教導」則需配直接受格 (accusative) 間接受格 (dative)。因「男人」為所有格,故只能用於「轄管」而非「教導」上。[79]這樣看來經文似乎是更傾向禁止女性任何之教導;但οὐκοὐδέ (neither…nor) 的句式結構使兩者帶有關聯。從新約及經外文獻發現,這個結構下的兩組詞彙不論是持正面、負面、[80]或相反意思,均有共通之處。[81]經文中這共通之處除均為順服的表現外,其目的亦為一致。[82]保羅於教牧書信中指出長老 監督之職責在於教導管理教會」,跟此處所禁止女性參與的事項相符。[83]故此保羅希望避免的並非單純女性參與教導,而是禁止女性嘗試藉教導的工作,例如擔任長老 監督之職份,來轄管男性。[84]

保羅將禁止女性僭越式教導的原因訴諸於創造次序及女人被[85]「因為」(γάρ) 的使用既可被詮釋為保羅解釋普世女性提供錯誤教導的原因;亦可為解釋他向以所教會女性頒布禁令的原因。[86]若以前者的視角來看,這兩項論據背後代表的假設是首生的具有特殊權利或義務;及假設女性整體較男性易受引誘。[87]保羅曾多次引創世故事來承托他的論證,而此處顯然是在借用創一至三章的敘述作為比喻。但他並沒有加以解釋,彷彿假設受眾已經了解創造的敘事,僅需點出敘事跟保羅要處理之問題相仿的地方作提醒。故此單從這兩句並不能引申出完整之神學概念,[88]反而需了解創世敘事本身的意義,以及查考保羅於其他書信引用創世敘事時的要旨來進行詮釋。

一般認為先祖墜落前的創世敘事反映男性比女性地位高的原因有:亞當首先被造;夏娃被造成亞當的幫助者;亞當命名夏娃;及上帝向亞當下達不得吃分別善惡樹果子之指令。[89]傳統上猶太及希羅文化均視首生的有更大權利,並因此視長子為將來家庭之首,有領導的責任;[90]這可於長子繼承權上體現。在聖經中,作長子的不但能承受雙份之家業,亦能得著父親之地位及社會的尊重。這種制度於早期社會中有其生存及功能上的重要性。[91]不過這種文化上的讀入乃過度詮釋保羅的意思,至少也不適用於現代社會中。[92]「先 (πρῶτος)… (εἶτα)」的用法於保羅書信中僅代表順序,[93]於提前三10同樣的結構也僅是指出先後次序,[94]並不帶有男性權威的含意。

在創一27中,上帝所創造的「האדם」並非指向專有名詞的「亞當 (אדם)」,而是泛指「人類」;而且緊接的經文亦補充「男人和女人 (ונקבה זכר)」均具神的形像。事實上當上帝交付管理的職責時,是同時給予亞當和夏娃的。夏娃的到來並非為協助亞當完成一項僅屬於他的工作,而是兩者有同等的地位及責任。[95]「幫助」一字亦不等於幫助者地位低於受助者。在舊約「幫助 (עזר)128次的使用中有72% 的時候乃在上者扶助弱者,當中包括上帝「幫助」人類;另外18% 雙方有對等之地位,僅有10% 為地位較低者提供幫助。[96]創二18指亞當需要幫助者的原因是他獨居不好,因此神將各樣動物帶到亞當前命名,為的是尋找亞當的配偶。[97]若以此經文來指夏娃幫助者的身份使她置於男性之下,同樣亦可理解為夏娃幫助、拯救亞當脫離獨居的生活,故此地位比亞當高。[98]至於命名方面,命名者不一定帶有對被命名者的轄管權:舊約中命名的原因主要乃為紀念或突顯被命名者的特徵。[99]在墮落前,亞當的名字為「男人 (איש)」;當遇上夏娃時,他稱夏娃為「女人 (אשה)」,反映的是兩者的近似性,是「骨中的骨、肉中的肉」。[100]直至墜落後上帝宣佈男人對女人的管轄時,亞當才再次名命女人為夏娃「חוה」。[101]

保羅書信中另一次引用創造次序來說明男女關係之經文記於林前十一8-11。在這段經文中保羅指女性受造的目的與男性不同,因而界定了兩性之分別;[102]她們只反映男性之榮耀,故此應該蒙頭[103]但保羅絕不可能忽略創造敘事並不支持女性於教會中受限的角色。[104]故此他並沒有訴諸此次序強制婦女蒙頭:她們仍有權利去決定蒙頭與否。反而保羅盼望婦女學效他於八至十章的例子,為別人的益處而放棄自己的權益:聚會中的女性應避免過份的暴露,模糊男女兩性分別之界線,[105]以致影響會眾不能注目於主的形像和榮耀,甚至為自己的丈夫帶來羞辱。[106]值得留意的是保羅在緊接的經文補充女性並不因創造次序而比男性低級,而是兩者平等。[107]如此既能避免受信者斷章取義;亦符合保羅一貫對創造中男女關係的理解。

保羅在提前並沒有如林前十一般停留於男女兩性應有之分別,而是再加入第二項論證去支持、加強、或引申第一點。故保羅對哥林多婦女的提醒雖然亦適用於婦女,但並非他藉創世敘事唯一要帶出的教導。

保羅在提前二14節中依然保留13節「亞當」的稱呼,卻將「夏娃」改成「女人」。然而視保羅藉此代表女性整體本質上比男性愚拙、更易受引誘的說法並不合理。[108]首先原文「女人」乃單數,加上「被引誘」一詞乃過去不定時態 (aorist tense),故此應僅理解為夏娃被一事。[109]保羅於林後十一3亦有用同一比喻指恐怕「你們」的心偏邪、失去向基督純一清潔的心,就像蛇誘惑了夏娃一樣。但「你們」的對象並非只限女性,而是指向整個哥林多教會的會眾。[110]可見保羅引用女人受之事並不定單指向女性本質之問題,乃根據個別教會之問題而調節比喻的使用。[111]雖然不論是 (Philo) 還是便西拉智訓都將女性定為較易被欺騙的一群、[112]乃罪惡之起源,[113]唯保羅從來沒有否認男性、亞當之責任;[114]上帝亦顯然將墮落的罪責置於亞當身上。[115]在墮落的敘事中,亞當為明知故犯者,有負其領袖或教導者的角色;[116]從某種角度來看亞當的罪才是首先、獨立、更可惡的。[117]

保羅並不可能認為性別乃純正教導之擔保,[118]故此他的重點不在於誰、或哪個性別先犯罪,而在於夏娃乃被欺騙的一位。[119]夏娃在上帝頒令禁吃分別善惡樹果子時並不在場,故需依賴亞當的教導。[120]在被蛇引誘時,夏娃理應尋求亞當的教導而非轉離上帝的道;[121]而亞當亦不應對夏娃言聽計從,放棄他作為領袖、教師之義務,[122]而應尋求上帝之指引。[123]在面對別異教導的威脅,[124]或在對保羅的教導一知半解的情況下,[125]保羅勸籲文化水平薄弱及真道上認識較淺之以婦女暫時放下在基督裡賦予之自由,[126]先以順服的心態學習,[127]並且以「善行」、「自守」等合符當時文化對賢德女性的標準來發揮她們的影響力。[128]

總結對提前二11-15的分析,保羅強調的並非女性教導的問題:女性教導本身並不是罪;[129]亦不是婦女能否擔當任何職位的問題,[130]而是所教會之婦女在清晰了解真道,能成為教師前必需以順服的心學習。沒有證據顯示保羅打算長期禁止婦女行使聖靈所賜之恩賜,[131]反而他的目標是聖徒能互相教導。[132]考慮到在保羅眾多書信中只有此處向一所風雨飄搖之教會禁止女性教導;[133]若然我們視這禁令為絕對性、通用於當時不同教會的所有女性,那我們只需尋找保羅時期女性參與教導職事的例子便能證實此禁令僅適用於提前的直接受眾。[134]

 

4. 保羅時期之女性職事

在保羅事工發展中不乏女性參與教導職事的蹤影,特別是於羅馬地區或羅馬化城市的教會中。[135]在羅十六的問安名單中,就至少有七至十位為女性。[136]百基拉是保羅稱為基督耶穌裡的同工,並且為得到保羅及外教會稱讚的領袖。[137]在保羅六次稱呼她跟丈夫亞居拉的隊工時,四次一反丈夫名字先行的習慣,[138]也許暗示了她在隊工中較重要的地位。[139]她似乎對經文及早期神學,特別是耶穌及使徒傳統有一定的了解及訓練,[140]以致她能向有學問、熟悉聖經之亞波羅講解得更詳細。[141]雖然「講解」所用之原文為ἐκτίθημι,但同一字亦用於保羅向羅馬猶太人的講論中,[142]故不能否認其教導之元素。[143]

另一位值得一提的為堅革哩教會女執事比。[144]雖然於提前三章女執事之資格中並沒有如監督般善於教導的要求,但保羅曾捎信予羅馬教會。[145]從保羅對她的引薦來看,似乎保羅預期比能跟一般捎信者一樣回應受信者之問題。[146]在徒六選立的第一批執事,都是被形容為被聖靈及智慧充滿。其中司提反更是能於公會上藉列祖的故事教訓眾人。即使保羅並沒有如監督職事般要求執事善於教導,但顯然執事也有能力和責任作見證,使人信道[147]

對提摩太來說,保羅於提前二章的禁令肯定並非普性的。除了因為他曾親歷保羅許亞基拉教導,[148]更重要的是他自己信仰之基礎正正是承傳自其母友尼基及祖母羅以。[149]即使將「教導」之定義收窄至教條及基督的神學,這兩位女性也必定是在參與教導的職事中。這也是為何保羅需特別提醒提摩太並他牧養之教會限制女性僭越性的教導,因為在提摩太的理解中,重生的女性自由參與教導是合理的。

保羅亦特別吩咐「選立 (καταλεγέσθω)」一批老寡婦。[150]保羅對這批寡婦之要求平行於對監督、長老及執事的要求。六十之齡正符合希臘對「長者ρεσβύτερος)」的定義,也跟猶太選立地方長老時視年齡為智慧象徵的傳統呼應。[151]年老的婦人需用善道教訓人,特別是指教少年婦人的原因,[152]或許就是因為有年輕寡婦挨家遊,好管閒事,[153]說不當說的話。[154]

雖然學者對女性多大程度參與教導職事仍有爭論,唯不能否認早期教會接納女性、允許她們學習並教導是革命性地超越猶太傳統及希羅文化。[155]這種普性的突破,顯然是超越對個別教會的禁令,且是推動群體走向最終理想的目標。[156]

 

5. 「在基督裡」的新創造

自亞當、夏娃墮落後,神跟人的關係便被隔絕;而人與人、兩性間的關係亦產出階級的分別,其中女性必被其丈夫所轄管。[157]然而保羅卻宣稱「在基督裡」信徒成為一個身體、互相聯絡,[158]並不區分為猶太人或外人、自主的或為奴的、受割禮的或未受割禮的,以及「男和女」。[159]加三28的經文並不是旨在打破職事上或社會地位上分工,而是指到救恩的性。[160]保羅於三7至四7所討論的是摩西律法跟因信稱義之關係,而背景是針對有猶太教師要求信入基督之外行割禮。三28中三組群體共通之處在於其社會上不對等的關係,且涉及承繼權的問題。於摩西律法中,只有猶太男性能承繼財產;外人、奴隸及女性並沒有此權利,[161]即使婦女承繼財產也是有限度地或在完全沒有親屬時才擁有。[162]然而保羅強調藉代替割禮的水禮,信入基督名下的人將歸為亞伯拉罕的後嗣,同得應許的諸約。[163]留意到當保羅在談到「男和女」時,並不如前兩組般用上對比性的οὐδέ而是καί這別異之處使人聯想到創27同樣的片語。[164]故此,保羅,或更恰當的說法是神,希望推動人類走向的目標是關係的復,如同在伊甸園裡的合一。[165]保羅眼中的復和自由並非僅限於屬靈意義上,[166]亦非一種「既濟未濟」的等待;而是有實質社會性的意義,教會正是實踐這終極目標的場景。[167]著救恩的信徒有聖靈臨在為印記,[168]而所帶來的恩賜,乃神學理想與生活實踐間的橋樑[169]在理想的環境下,聖徒無分性別,都能行使聖靈所賜同等的恩賜;然而在不完美的環境下,有其他比自由更超越的原則,例如愛弟兄不叫人絆倒的心。[170]

 

6. 總結

以現代眼光回看保羅的教導如提前二11-14毫無疑問仍是帶有兩性差異對待的情況:他的而且確曾禁止以所教會的女性參與教導職事;然而這僅是在當時文化下利多於弊的做法。[171]教會既要為社會帶來改革;同時亦不能一蹴而就、過於激進,以致窒礙基督教於敵對、充滿懷疑的大環境中發展。[172]相比古近東、舊約時期、以致希羅文化,保羅已經帶領當時的教會向前邁進一大步,亦反映了歷代條的可塑性。[173]保羅藉他的書信為我們提供了最終目標的藍圖;而在這個藍圖中,女性必然能藉聖靈所賜的恩賜自由參與教導職事,為建立基督的身體,使眾聖徒於真道上同歸於[174] (7234)


 

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Blomberg, Craig L. ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian: Gender Roles in Paul.’ In Two Views on Women in Ministry. Edited by James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg, 329-72. Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001.

Bowman, Ann L. ‘Women in Ministry.’ In Two Views on Women in Ministry. Edited by James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg, 239-99. Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001.

Brauch, Manfred T. Hard Sayings of Paul. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1989.

Brown, J. G. ‘A Historian Looks at 1 Timothy 2:11-14.’ Pricilla Papers. Vol. 26, No. 3 (Summer 2012): 7-11; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

Carson, D. A. ‘“Silent in the Churches”: On the Role of Women in I Corinthians 14:33b-36.’ In Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, ed. John Piper and Wayne Grudem, 121-31. Wheaton: Crossway, 1991; from <https://bible.org/seriespage/silent-churches-role-women-1-corinthians-1433b-36>.

Choung, James. ‘Can Women Teach?: An Exegesis of 1 Tim 2:11-15 and 1 Corinthians 14:33-40.’ Madison: InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 2006; from <http://cms.intervarsity.org/mx/item/4175/download/>.

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Evans, Craig A. Jesus and His World: The Archaeological Evidence. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012.

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Grudem, Wayne. ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No: Paul’s Consistent Advocacy of Women’s Participation without Governing Authority.’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Vol. 30, No. 1 (Mar. 1987): 11-23; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

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Holbrook, Frank B. ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman.’ In Symposium on the Role of Women in the Church, 86-107. Silver Spring: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1984; from <https://adventistbiblicalresearch.org/sites/default/files/pdf/role%20of%20women%20in%20the%20church_0.pdf>.

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Kruse, Colin G. ‘Ministry.’ In Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid. Leicester and Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993.

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Webb, William J. Slaves, Women & Homosexuals: Exploring the Hermeneutics of Cultural Analysis. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

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[1] 經文的核心精神、原意及目的等乃影響經文詮釋的重要因素。參William J. Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals: Exploring the Hermeneutics of Cultural Analysis (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 68-69.

[2] Craig S. Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ in Two Views on Women in Ministry, ed. James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg (Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001), 46.

[3] N. T. Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church: The Biblical Basis,’ conference paper for the Symposium, ‘Men, Women and the Church,’ 2004; from http://ntwrightpage.com/wright_women_service_church.htm.

[4] 參徒十三1;羅二19-20;林前十二28-2911;提前二7;提後一11;來五12等。

[5] 參羅十二7,十五4;提前四1316;提後三16等。

[6] 參太十五9;可七714;西二22;提前一10,四16,六3等;麥啟新編:《新約及早期基督教文獻希臘文大詞典(中文版)》香港:漢語聖經協會,2010,頁368-70

[7] 參路4;徒十八25,廿一2124;羅二18及加六6;參Linda L. Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ in Two Views on Women in Ministry, ed. James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg (Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001), 100.

[8] Wayne Grudem, ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No: Paul’s Consistent Advocacy of Women’s Participation without Governing Authority,’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 30/1 (Mar. 1987): 17; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

[9] 參林前二15-16

[10] Ann Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ in Two Views on Women in Ministry, ed. James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg (Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001), 280.

[11] 參徒十八;羅十五4

[12] Douglas J. Moo,1 Timothy 2:11-15: Meaning and Significance,’ Trinity Journal 1 NS (1980): 66.

[13] 參林前四17

[14] 參提前四11,六2Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 65.

[15] 參提後二2Andrew C. Perriman, Speaking of Women: Interpreting Paul (Leicester: APOLLOS, 1998), 81.

[16] 參提前三2,五17Grudem, ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No,’ 18.

[17] Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 271.

[18] 參羅十二6;林前十二2811

[19] 參林前十四26,十二11教導之恩賜與行異能說方言等並列,故此雖然先知教師使徒三種恩賜較常被提及,卻不一定代表教會內的職位;參Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 274-75.

[20] 參林前十二7,十四26

[21] 參歌16;來五12Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 99, 123; Craig L. Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian: Gender Roles in Paul,’ in Two Views on Women in Ministry, ed. James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg (Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001), 337.

[22] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 123.

[23] 參麥啟新編:《新約及早期基督教文獻希臘文大詞典(中文版)》,頁351-52

[24] 參林前十二肢體之比喻。

[25] 1;提前三8

[26] Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 242.

[27] Gregory R. Perry, ‘Phoebe of Cenchreae and “Women” of Ephesus: “Deacons’ in the Earliest Churches,’ Presbyterion, 36/1 (Spring 2010): 21; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

[28] Colin G. Kruse, ‘Ministry,’ in Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid (Leicester and Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 602.

[29] 7;西一23

[30] 參林後八4

[31] Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 240-41.

[32] Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 28。本文假設教牧書信乃保羅所寫。關於教牧書信作者的問題及討論,參德席爾瓦著,紀榮智、李望遠譯:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,經叢書新北市:校園書房,2013,頁828-42;卡森、穆爾著,尹妙珍、紀榮神譯:《21世紀新約導論》,參考叢書香港:天道,2012,頁540-52

[33] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 152.

[34] 參林前十一5Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 30; Cecil M. Robeck, Jr. ‘Prophecy, Prophesying’ in Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid (Leicester and Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 756.

[35] 參徒十三3-4,十五32,十六6;林前十四1924262931Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 87; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 79-80; Manfred T. Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1989), 161.

[36] Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 31-32; Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 345.

[37] 信徒被建於使徒及先知的根基上,參20。有學者認為先知之恩賜乃次於教師及使徒,其內容並不帶權威性,亦不包括教義及道德上的教導,參Grudem, ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No,’ 11-18; D. A. Carson, ‘“Silent in the Churches”: On the Role of Women in I Corinthians 14:33b-36,’ in Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, ed. John Piper and Wayne Grudem (Wheaton: Crossway, 1991); from <https://bible.org/seriespage/silent-churches-role-women-1-corinthians-1433b-36>認為兩者平等的,參Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 30-32; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 86-87, 97-99; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 76-80; Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 190; 另參Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 336; Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 76; Robeck, ‘Prophecy, Prophesying,’ 755-59.

[38] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 82,112; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 81; Richard C. Kroeger and Catherine C. Kroger, I Suffer Not a Woman: Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992), 82.

[39] 說方言的、翻方言、先知講道、評價講道的;Stanley J. Grenz and Denise M. Kjesbo, Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in Ministry (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1995), 117-18Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 299.

[40] Scott J. Hafemann, ‘Corinthian, Letters to the,’ in Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid (Leicester and Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 176.

[41] 參林前一26Linda, ‘Women in Ministry,’115-116; Craig S. Keener, Paul, Women & Wives: Marriage and Women’s Ministry in the Letters of Paul (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992), 80-88; Thomas R. Schreiner, Paul, Apostle of God’s Glory in Christ: A Pauline Theology (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 406; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 122; Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 50.

[42] Carson,“Silent in the Churches”’; Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 350-51; Grudem, ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No,’ 21-22; Frank B. Holbrook, ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman,’ in Symposium on the Role of Women in the Church (Silver Spring: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1984), 106-7; from <https://adventistbiblicalresearch.org/sites/default/files/pdf/role%20of%20women%20in%20the%20church_0.pdf>.

[43] 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁858Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 121-22.

[44] 參張永信:《教牧書信》,天道聖經香港:天道,2005,頁66-67曾思瀚著,曾景恆譯:《僕人領袖的教導與領導提多書、提摩太前書析讀》,聖經通識叢書香港:基道,201346166唐書禮著潘秋松等譯:《提摩太與提多書信註釋上》加州:美國麥種傳道會,2008,頁98-103;卡森、穆爾:《21世紀新約導論》,頁554

[45] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 121; Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 255-56; 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁824-25

[46] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 137.

[47] 參提前一3-7,四1-8,六3:520-21Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 358; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 287; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 126.

[48] Carroll D. Osburn, ‘AΥΘΕΝΤΕΩ (1 Timothy 2:12),’ Restoration Quarterly, 25/1 (1982): 10; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

[49] Russell L. Huizing, ‘What was Paul Thinking?: An Ideological Study of 1 Timothy 2,’ Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 3/2 (Summer 2011), 15-16; from <http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/jbpl/vol3no2/JBPL_Vol3No2_Huizing_pp14-22.pdf>.

[50] 參徒19Rodney Stark, ‘Reconstructing the Rise of Christianity: The Role of Women,’ Sociology of Religion, 56/3 (Autumn, 1995): 231; Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexual, 108; Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 75; 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁825

[51] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 63; 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁843-44

[52] Raymond F. Collins, I & II Timothy and Titus: A Commentary. The New Testament Library (Louisville: Westminster John Know Press, 2002), 64.

[53] Robert W. Wall, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus. The Two Horizons New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2012), 85-86; 希羅社會中亦有一群受高等教育、享有自由身份之藝妓 (Hetaria)她們並不蒙頭,且活躍於社會高層男性間的聚會及辯論;參Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 126; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 287; Julia Neuffer, ‘First-Century Cultural Backgrounds in the Greco-Roman Empire,’ in Symposium on the Role of Women in the Church (Silver Spring: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1984), 55-56; from <https://adventistbiblicalresearch.org/sites/default/files/pdf/role%20of%20women%20in%20the%20church_0.pdf>.

[54] Collins, I & II Timothy and Titus, 68; Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church’; Huizing, ‘What was Paul Thinking?’, 16.

[55] Collins, I & II Timothy and Titus, 67; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,《教牧期刊》第1卷第2 (199611)66

[56] Carson, ‘“Silent in the Churches”’.

[57] 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁844-45; 亦有提出因以所最大之宗教及神廟屬於希臘女神亞底米 (Artemis)該教僅接受女性作信眾及當祭司並限制男性之地位。當基督教作為當地之新興宗教,並同樣反傳統地允許女性學習、提升女性地位時,時人或許便擔心權力核心是否也將向女性傾斜;參Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 126; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 287.

[58] 參徒廿2後三12;提前二2前三4Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 360; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 288; James Choung, ‘Can Women Teach?: An Exegesis of 1 Tim 2:11-15 and 1 Corinthians 14:33-40’ (Madison: InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 2006), 3-4; from <http://cms.intervarsity.org/mx/item/4175/download/>; Kroeger and Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman, 104.

[59] 參羅十六25; 林前十四283034Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 122; 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁234

[60] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 128; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 122-23.

[61] Perriman, Speaking of Women, 115.

[62] 女性可於會堂中聆聽妥拉,但普遍均不能研習。Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 51; Elisabeth M. Tetlow, ‘The Status of Women in Greek, Roman and Jewish Society,’ in Women and Ministry in the New Testament (New York: Paulist Press, 1980); from <http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/tetlow1.asp>; James Choung, ‘Can Women Teach?’, 3; Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 81; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁70

[63] 甚至有塔木德 (Talmud) 教導與其讓女性接觸妥拉,倒不如將之燒毀;參Moo, 1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 77-78.

[64] Collins, I & II Timothy and Titus, 71.

[65] Elisabeth M. Tetlow, ‘The Status of Women in Greek, Roman and Jewish Society’.

[66] Neuffer, ‘First-Century Cultural Backgrounds in the Greco-Roman Empire,’ 54; 羅馬女性則可至十八歲;參Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 116.

[67] 由麵包店管家至哲學家、醫師等;參Craig Evans, Jesus and His World: The Archaeological Evidence (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012), 68; Neuffer, ‘First-Century Cultural Backgrounds in the Greco-Roman Empire,’58.

[68] Evans, Jesus and His World, 66.

[69] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 87.

[70] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 127-28; James Choung, ‘Can Women Teach?’, 3; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁69

[71] 5:21Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 215; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 132-33.

[72] Thomas R. Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ in Two Views on Women in Ministry, ed. James R. Beck and Craig L. Blomberg (Grand Rapids: ZondervanPublishingHouse, 2001), 216-17, 228; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 109.

[73] 參羅7Perriman, Speaking of Women, 122; cf. Carson,“Silent in the Churches”’.

[74] Collins, I & II Timothy and Titus, 69.

[75] Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 64.

[76] A-A’為「女人要沉靜」及「只要沉靜」;C為「一味的順服」;同上,頁64.

[77] 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁234Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 256.

[78] 「轄管」一字於新約僅此出現一次 (hapax legomena)。學者對保羅使用此字的意思乃有爭議:由帶強烈貶意如「策動罪惡」、「奪權」;參Andrew C. Perriman, ‘What Eve Did, What Women Shouldn’t Do: The Meaning of AΥΘΕΝΤΕΩ in 1 Timothy 2:12,’ Tyndale Bulletin, 44/1 (1993): 134; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 133; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁75Osburn, ‘AΥΘΕΝΤΕΩ (1 Timothy 2: 12),’ 6; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 125, 133-34; 至較正面的「行使權柄 / 責任」;參Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 362; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 151。較中性的則有「採取主動」、「發揮影響」等意思;參Perriman, Speaking of Women, 169。亦有將整句翻譯為「不許女性以自己為男人的本源」,參Kroeger and Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman, 101-3.

[79] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 129; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 129。然而新約中亦有少數例外,參徒8:21

[80] 參太20;加三28,四14前五5等。

[81] Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 363; Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 220; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 126-27, 135-36.

[82] Wall, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus, 91.

[83] 參提前24-5; 17;多一9Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 364.

[84] Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 364; Schreiner, Paul, Apostle of God’s Glory in Chris, 409; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 126-27, 135-36; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁67

[85] 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁245

[86] Keener, Paul, Women & Wives, 115. 認為保羅出發點為前者的論據,參Moo, 1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 70.

[87] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 249.

[88] 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁246

[89] Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 201; Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 127-29.

[90] Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 68; Grudem, ‘Prophecy - Yes, but Teaching - No,’ 21-22; Holbrook, ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman,’ 107.

[91] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 140.

[92] Ibid., 141.

[93] 參林前十五46前四16-17

[94] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 129, 145.

[95] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 127.

[96] Ibid., 128.

[97] 參創20Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 143.

[98] Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 253.

[99] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 143cf. Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 79Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 208.

[100] 參創23

[101] 參創1620Webb 116-117; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 136.

[102] 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁44

[103] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 153-54.

[104] Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 253.

[105] Ibid., 143; Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church’; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 110-11; 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁41

[106] Keener, Paul, Women & Wives, 28-31, 37-38, 46-47; Schreiner, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 227; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 108蒙頭的女性代表對丈夫的忠貞,女性剃髮於當時文化有妓女的意思,而猶太傳統亦允許丈夫休掉不蒙頭之妻子;參民18Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 110; Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 344。披頭散髮的女性亦可能使人聯想到其他宗教神靈附身的表現;參Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 111;在羅馬家庭律例 (Patria Potestas) 中,女性必需服於一位「頭」之下,通常為其父親或丈夫;參Colin G. Kruse, ‘Head,’ in Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid (Leicester and Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 376-77.

[107] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 112.

[108] 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁80

[109] 同上,頁78

[110] Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 59.

[111] Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 263; Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 113.

[112] 斐羅就創一33的經文說 ‘Woman “is more accustomed to be deceived than man” and “gives way and is taken in by plausible falsehoods which resemble the truth,” the proper relation of a wife to a husband is epitomized in the verb “to serve as a slave”’;參Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 262.

[113] 便西拉智訓廿24‘From a woman sin had its beginning and because of her we all die’;參Ibid., 262.

[114] 參羅12-14;林前十五21-22

[115] 參創13Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 262; 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁246Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 69.

[116] 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁246

[117] 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁857

[118] 甚至所教會涉及教義之問題都是男性教師造成的;參提前一19-20;提後二16-18同上,頁857; Keener, Paul, Women & Wives, 116-17.

[119] 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁81-82

[120] Keener, Paul, Women & Wives, 116.

[121] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 129; Perriman, ‘What Eve Did, What Women Shouldn’t Do,’ 131;

[122] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 166; 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁246Perriman, Speaking of Women, 169.

[123] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 113-14.

[124] 曾提出之可能有如亞底米 (Artemis) 神話相信她是首生,然後才嫁給男性作配偶;也有相信她為女性之保護神、生命的源頭、分娩的力量;參Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 128。另外亦可能涉及對強調女神卓越性的人宗教大母神教 (The great mother cult)、婚姻女神 (Demeter)月神 (Kore)以及農神司陰府之神 (Isis-Osiris) 的崇拜;參Kroeger and Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman, 49-54.

[125] 保羅提出解放性之神學形成一種過度實現的末世論 (over realized eschatology) 出現,長期受壓之女性強調她們教導及管理的自由,甚至放棄傳統女性婚姻及生產的職責;參Schreiner, Paul, Apostle of Gods Glory in Christ, 408; Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 367.

[126] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 131.

[127] Perriman, Speaking of Women, 171.

[128] Karen W. Hoover, ‘Creative Tension in 1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ Brethren Life and Thought, 22 (Summer, 1977): 165-166; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost; Wall, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus, 93; Osburn, ‘AΥΘΕΝΤΕΩ (1 Timothy 2: 12),’ 12; 15節以自守 (σωφροσύνη) 一字結束,呼應第9節;參Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 73; Wall, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus, 97.

[129] Perriman, Speaking of Women,141-42.

[130] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 129-30.

[131] 張永信:〈保羅的婦女事奉觀〉,頁59

[132] 參林前十四26; 歌三16Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church 130.

[133] Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 53-54.

[134] Ibid., 57-58; 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁857-58

[135] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 88, 96; Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 334.

[136] Kruse, ‘Ministry,’ 603; Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 82; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 279.

[137] 參羅十六3-4;林前十六19則提示亞居拉及百基拉於他們家中舉行聚會。於希羅時代,房主於法理上需為其房簷下任何聚會負責;參Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 83-84.

[138] 參徒十八18, 26;羅十六3;提後四19

[139] Holbrook, ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman,’ 101; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 280.

[140] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 99.

[141] 參徒十八24-26

[142] 參徒廿23Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 99.

[143] Blomberg, ‘Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 336; Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 76.

[144] 參羅十六1

[145] Holbrook, ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman,’ 101; Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul, 254.

[146] Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 38.

[147] 參徒廿16;林前三5,四1Keener, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 39.

[148] 參徒十八Huizing, ‘What was Paul Thinking?’, 17.

[149] 參徒十四6-7,十六1;提後一5Holbrook, ‘A Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Biblical Data Regarding the Role of Woman,’ 101; Perriman, Speaking of Women, 82; Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 280.

[150] 參提前五9-10

[151] Belleville, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 90-92; 曾思瀚:《僕人領袖的教導與領導》,頁125

[152] 參多二3-4

[153] Περίεργος,有言不及義的意思。在道德及哲學的層面上,這字常形容那些傳錯誤或不恰當教導之人;參Keener , ‘Women in Ministry,’ 54.

[154] 參提前五13

[155] Moo, ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15,’ 75; Rodney Stark, Reconstructing the Rise of Christianity: The Role of Women 231, 237-239; Judith R. Wegner, Chattel or Person?: The Status of Women in the Mishnah (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 18, 146.

[156] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 91-92.

[157] 參創16

[158] 參羅十二5德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁576

[159] 參西11;加三28Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 353-54.

[160] 卡森、穆爾:《21世紀新約導論》,頁472Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 105, 107; Webb Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 85.

[161] Joel S. Williams, ‘A Study of Galatians 3:28: The Role of Men and Women in the Church and the Home;’ from <http://www.afn.org/~afn52344/longer1.html>; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 105; Schreiner, Paul, Apostle of God’s Glory in Christ, 401.

[162] Wegner, Chattel or Person?, 17, 102, 110.

[163] 12Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 85-86; Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church’; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 99-100; 德席爾瓦:《21世紀基督教新約導論》,頁578-79

[164] Wright, ‘Women’s Service in the Church’; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 104-5.

[165] 參林後五19;卡森、穆爾:《21世紀新約導論》,頁472476Blomberg, Neither Hierarchicalist nor Egalitarian,’ 340; Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 105; Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 42.

[166] J. G. Brown, ‘A Historian Looks at 1 Timothy 2:11-14,’ Pricilla Papers, 26/3 (Summer 2012): 10-11; Academic Search Premier Database, EBSCOhost.

[167] 比如容許從前被禁止參與猶太宗教活動之外人及女性加入教會、猶太信徒及外信徒共同坐席、富裕人家跟貧窮人共享主餐等;參加二11-14;林前十一21Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 85-86.

[168] 13

[169] Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 102.

[170] 參林前八至十的例子;Keener, Paul, Women & Wives, 38Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 131; Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul,165; Robeck, ‘Prophecy, Prophesying,’ 758.

[171] Webb, Slaves, Women & Homosexuals, 73.

[172] Ibid., 63.

[173] Ibid., 76-81, 83; 正如保羅曾於林前九14說主的命定為叫傳福音者靠福音養生,但也是保羅親自打破這項「命定」;參Perriman, Speaking of Women, 125。又或猶太傳統從性的角度視女性為男性的資產;但保羅卻於林前七3-5教導身體的決定權在於婦雙方的協定;參Wegner, Chattel or Person?, 16, 95-96; Ibid., 100.

[174] 參林前十二23-2412-13Grenz and Kjesbo, Women in the Church, 153Bowman, ‘Women in Ministry,’ 273-74.