**The Story of Liberty: John Wanamaker (Youtube)
余正遠: 大型百貨店之父萬約翰(John Wanamaker)開退貨服務之先河《傳書》(2005年2月號)
믿음의선배들-John-wanamaker (Youtube in Korean)
Steven Conn on John Wanamaker Youtube
1876年，當時年僅廿八歲，後被稱為百貨大王、現代廣告之父的約翰•沃納梅克John Wanamaker在費城成立美國第一間百貨商店。自小開始一生追求認識聖經，一生重視事奉神。年老時作見證說：「我十歲時用了一年半時間作幫工賺取2.75美元，購買了一本漂亮的真皮聖經，那是我一生最偉大的投資，因為那本聖經造就了今日的我。」約翰從小尊主為大，有七十五年時間在兒童主日學渡過，或富或貧都服侍主，遵守主命（太6：33-34）。John Wanamaker都明白活著就要事奉主的道理。記述他的中文傳記《卓越人生》指出，John Wanamaker出身寒微，一生努力學習，奮鬥不懈，建立多所教會，其主日學學生數千，他所行的正如聖經所說：「在小事上奮鬥，在小事上忠心，在小事上凡事造就人，就能成為貴重的器皿，影響他人的生命。」老年時，事業非常成功的他說：「兒童主日學校才是我最重要的事業，其他的事業比起兒童主日學校，只不過是一件工作罷了！我確信神的應許：『你們要先求祂的國和祂的義』是我獻身給神的座右銘。」「臨終最後一句話﹕『在神裡思想，在神裡努力，在神裡流汗，信靠神是我人生的目標，是我人生的全部。』」1922年12月14日舉行喪禮，當天下大雪。超過一萬五千名悼念者聚集教會。警察局長說﹕「這是我個人六十年來，所看過最多人參加的喪禮！」
《卓越人生--創新與力行的百貨業之王》 John Wanamaker
小時候，參加「第一獨立教會」。這教會遇到下雨天，房頂就會漏水，院子泥濘不堪。但沒有自願協助教會維修。John Wanamaker暗自決定用磚頭鋪滿教會的院子。每天從自己每天7分錢工資買磚。他估計要兩年以上，才能鋪滿院子。幾個主日後，主任牧師(John Chambers)希望發現誰這麼好心為教會鋪磚。一清早到教會，不久，看見13歲的John辛勤地搬運磚頭鋪路。牧師有莫名的感動：『神啊，年幼的沃納梅克在做連大人都不做的事，求祢賜福沃納梅克，並回報他三十倍、六十倍、一百倍。』(p. 43)牧師在主日講道，激勵會友，後來大家同心，很快就將教會翻新。
**Joseph H. Appel : The Business Biography Of John Wanamaker Founder And Builder America S Merchant Pioneer From 1861 To 1922 (1930); Read Online; PDF;
When still a young man he had sent a telegram to the Y. M. C. A. of Bridgeton, N. J., in reply to a request for a sketch of his life saying laconically: "Thinking, trying, toiling, and trusting in God is all of my biography." Now in these writings he revealed how he thought, tried, toiled, and trusted in God. 224
The value of character in business, by John Wanamaker; Modern business lectures (1914); Read Online; PDF;
"Miss Jarvis employed every means available to her to achieve her goal of establishing the observance of Mothers Day nationally. She wrote hundreds of letters to legislators, executives, and businessmen on both state and national levels. She was a fluent speaker and passed up no opportunity to promote her project . Most of her appeals fell on deaf ears. Her first real break came from her appeal to the great merchant and philanthropist, John Wanamaker of Philadelphia. With his influence and support, the movement gained momentum. On May 10, 1908, the third anniversary of Mrs. Jarvis' death, fully-prepared programs were held at the Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church in Grafton and in Philadelphia, launching the observance of a general memorial day for all mothers."
Her daughter Anna led a small tribute to her mother at Andrews Methodist Church on May 12, 1907, and dedicated her life to establishing a nationally recognized Mother's Day. The first official Mother's Day ceremonies were held at Andrews Methodist in Grafton and the Wanamaker Store Auditorium in Philadelphia on May 10, 1908. Six years later, President Woodrow Wilson signed a Congressional Resolution setting aside Mother's Day as a national holiday to be celebrated on the second Sunday in May.
以下引自**Joseph H. Appel : The Business Biography Of John Wanamaker Founder And Builder America S Merchant Pioneer From 1861 To 1922 (1930); Read Online; PDF;
Called a merchant prince, but preferring to call himself a merchant pioneer, John Wanamaker was in reality a crusading pioneer, who in the realm of business believed that (in his own words) "the merchant must be big enough, broad enough, far-seeing enough to survey the whole field and then stand as a bulwark amid the confusions, heresies and fears of his times" and who lived his own creed: "A successful merchant must be a scientist, a statesman, a reformer, a custodian of social interests and an arbiter of industrial problems."
He was a merchant who believed (again in his own words) that "the Golden Rule of the New Testament has become the Golden Rule of business"; who in the face of cynical sneers "Pious John" and "Honest John" continued to shatter the old idea that religion has no place in business, and business no place in religion; who testified, after living concurrently in both realms for more than sixty years: "The temptations of business are great, and unless a merchant has more than a creed or the ordinary ground-work of honesty and faithfulness he may be caught by the sudden wind of plausible opportunity and tumble over the precipice and be ruined" and, in the other realm: "I am glad to stand up to say that religion is the only investment that pays the largest dividends possible to receive, both in this life and in that to come."
He was a merchant who "staged" his stores, dramatizing them, making them living panoramas of commerce, colossal productions of the thought and craft of man; with lavish exhibits and decorations and display rooms and auditoriums, that confounded those who ask of everything, "Does it pay?”-- those who do not realize that profit is a by-product of service.
He was the pioneer advertising merchant who made business articulate and thus established mutual confidence between buyer and seller.
He was a merchant of faith who went down three times into the shadows of defeat, to come back each time stronger than ever in the good-will of the public because he worked, believed, dared and served.
Starting without robust health ... he became a man of vigor and endurance, laboring seven days a week for 70 years (Sundays in his church and Sunday school, week days in his business), living to the age of 84.
John Wanamaker, the grandfather, was a lay-preacher in the Baptist Church a tall, austere-looking, but kindly man known among his neighbors for his uprightness. And like his grandson, later, he must have kept hard at work seven days a week, for he raised two families, first as a farmer near the homestead, then as a builder in Dayton, Ohio, and as a brick-maker on the outskirts of Philadelphia, finally as a pioneer in Indiana where he died. P. 7
Nelson Wanamaker married Elizabeth Deshong Kochersperger about 1836. The name Deshong was Americanized from Des Champs by which name her maternal ancestors were known in France. Her father first settled on a farm near what is now known as the town of Darby, Delaware Co., Pennsylvania, but later became an innkeeper, taking over the old Rope Ferry Hotel on the Schuylkill. The marriage probably occurred at the inn, quite a distance away. Later the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Trinity took over the Buck Road Schoolhouse on Passayunk Road and Penn's Ferry Road. The family no doubt attended this church, for John Wanamaker went to the Lutheran Sunday School, established in the Schoolhouse before the Church came into the neighborhood, although later in life he wrote: "I was born a Methodist," referring to the denomination of his father's church. P. 8
John Wanamaker's mother was generous, cheerful and open-hearted. "Her relations to her Lord were fundamental,” writes a friend. "She communed with God, and to this end she was regular and diligent in her readings and devotions. For a long time she had charge of the infant department of the Sunday school. She was frequently, at times for years together, president of the Ladies' Aid Society. . . She did what she could to train up her family in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. She taught them out of His Holy Bible " P.9
John Wanamaker's ancestors thus brought with them to America the spirit of the Reformation. On his paternal side the unfettered faith of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the zeal of John Knox. On his maternal side the sacrificing constancy of the persecuted Huguenots. His forbears were among the men and women of faith who laid the foundations for free America. P.9
John Wanamaker was the firstborn of the family. The exact year of his birth is uncertain. The day of the month is known, as birthdays were regularly celebrated. But as to the year what is a year or two when one is young! He was born on July 11, either 1837 or 1838. There are no family or church records, not even a family Bible, to fix the date. For a time such biographical sketches as were published when he began to grow famous gave the year as 1837, and this year was written in his early insurance policies. Later on 1838 was accepted as the true year.
It was his habit, in these writings, to disclose his own life under a veil of idealism and impersonality. He wrote out of his own experiences, and when he speaks of father and mother and the old home the picture may be accepted as describing his own.
"My first love was my mother and my first home was on her breast. My first bed was upon her bosom. Leaning little arms upon her knees, I learned my first prayers. A bright lamp she lit in my soul that never dies down or goes out, though the winds and waves of fourscore years have swept over me."
"Sitting in my mother's old armchair which she loved because her first-born son gave it to her forty years ago, I am writing this in the evening twilight coming on. With the darkness falling, I seem to lose myself in the flood of memories, and to feel that the arms of the chair have loosed themselves to become my very own mother's arms around me again, drawing me to her bosom, the happiest place on earth my mother's bosom just as she used to do in the days and nights long gone by. I feel the touch of her little hand on my brow, and I hear her voice as she smooths my hair and calls me her boy, her very own boy." P. 10
In answering a question asked late in life: "Where did you get the inspiration to achieve so mightily; where did you get that something that has ever spurred you onward to new endeavor?" John Wanamaker replied: "From my parents." 11
From his father's ancestry the boy inherited ruggedness of character, ceaseless industry, persistence and thoroughness in work, eternal stick-at-it-iveness and the crusading spirit traits that showed themselves unmistakably in all his undertakings.
From his mother's strain he inherited a charm of manner, sweetness of disposition sympathy and love, and diligence; but most of all, eternal and unwavering faith in God which remained steadfast all his life, through storm and sunshine, failure and success. 12
With only a brick-maker's income (not the high wages of today), supplemented slightly by the sale of garden products, the family was raised not without hardships and self-sacrifice. But temptations to pleasure were few, and the children scarcely knew the need of money. In those days each family and small community was happy in itself.
The family arose at four o'clock to do the chores before breakfast, and get ready for the day's work and schooling a habit John was never to lose "daybreak this morning came at 4:46" he wrote in Florida when nearly eighty years old, "the first ray of light whitens the hills and then it creeps down to caress the lowlands, to lift the shadows and announce the arrival of a new day. By the sea the rising of the sun makes a golden path along the sandy beach, with a great bed of emeralds sparkling in the light of the summer morning."
And he learned early which also became a life habit that the work-day must often be stretched into the evening. But there was play "between times" work was not yet so intensive as it later became in America.
Before breakfast, "family prayers" were held. On Sundays no cooking was done, the food being prepared on Saturday, which was a busy day. On many an evening hymns were sung. But there was nothing austere or forbidding about this religious life. It was a cheerful religion in a cheerful, happy family. 13-14
John was rather a frail身體虛弱的child, "always taking cod-liver oil 魚肝油,” one of his companions said. But he did his share of the housework, and before and after school he lent a hand in the brickyard-- "I would turn the bricks on their edge to let them 'dry," he said, "but I never worked in the brickyard regularly." He received pay for his work, however, and "seven copper cents," he recalls later, was the first pay he received "they gave me an idea that if I was ever to do better than my father I would have to learn how to save." (Did he really have this thought at the time or did it come in retrospect?)
Reading was the recreation of the boy, and the passion persisted all through life so that he was rarely without a book in his hand or in his pocket. He literally read himself into a Benjamin Franklin education. "I am sure," he once said, "people who saw me when a boy often thought I had a tumor or some extraordinary growth where my pockets were they were so stuffed out with books or bits of paper I had put there to study in my spare moments."
But books were scarce in those days. Besides the Bible, about the only other books in his home were "Pilgrim's Progress 天路歷程," "Robinson Crusoe魯濱孫漂流記" and a dictionary. 15
The Bible, of course, made the deepest impression of all books on the boy's character, as his life proved not only his religious and patriotic life, but his business life as well. 16
When 11 years old he bought a Bible for himself "my biggest purchase," he later called it. "In a little Mission Sunday School of the Lutheran Church I bought from my teacher, Mr. Hurlbert, a small red leather Bible about eight inches long and six inches wide. This Bible cost $2.75 which I paid for in small installments as I saved up my own money that I had earned. Looking back over my life that little red Bible was the foundation on which my life has been built, and it has made possible all that has counted most in my life. I know now that it was the greatest and most important and far-reaching purchase I have ever made; and every other investment in my life seems to me, after mature years, only secondary. 16-17
Of actual schooling John Wanamaker had not more than two years; some of his family estimate it at not over nineteen months. And this instruction that he received in schools would today be called a travesty滑稽模仿on education. There was no fixed course of instruction in the elementary schools in Philadelphia until 1868. 17
Of his experience in school John Wanamaker wrote: "I had no special fondness for arithmetic, and I never learned any more than simple arithmetic, for the teacher himself did not know any more. When I had gone through all the classes that it was possible for me to take, they let me teach the younger boys and gave me a desk on the platform with the master. It was my great desire to learn algebra and geometry and some time after I left school, while I was a clerk in the clothing store, I tried to get a young man who had been through college to teach me algebra. But he never could get it through my head, and I gave it up because I had no one who could explain it properly." 18
One old schoolmate has said that "John was often mentioned at school as the boy who wants to know more about things." And he often turned the tables on the teacher instead of teacher keeping him in, after school hours, John kept the teacher in. He "wants to know." This trait of character was to persist through life!
In the autumn of 1849 John was taken out of the Landreth School because his family suddenly decided to migrate to the State of Indiana, called west by the grandfather, whose letters were the lure that caused Nelson Wanamaker to sell his interest in the brickyard, pack bag and baggage and join his father. 19
祖母："We have 260 acres and a very pleasant situation. Our house is a frame with four rooms and we have a variety of good fruit of all kinds . . . our soil is very good ... we can raise as good truck out here as they do about your city. We are living in a good neighborhood. The people are all very friendly and kind. The most of them are landholders and are very much upon an equality. They generally live in log cabins till they get their land improved and then build good houses. Our country is but in its infantile state yet. It is only about 15 years since the first settlers located here and now our country is quite well settled. In this neighborhood we have 25 to 30 inhabitants living within one mile distance of our residence, so we are not at a loss for neighbors, and we cannot complain of the privileges we have in regard to society. We have Methodist preaching once in three weeks one mile distant, and we have a Baptist meeting house a half mile of us where there is preaching once in two weeks. Our Baptist preacher is quite a spiritual man and preaches the real Methodist doctrine, and we often unite together in our meetings. Our privilege as it regards our schools is but poor. We have school only about 4 to 6 months out of the year. The appropriations are small and it is but a poor place for teachers. But we expect to have better arrangements in the course of another year. We labor under some privations here as we cannot get the luxuries here as in Philadelphia. 20
But in April of the first spring after going west in the early fall back to Philadelphia came the family, the brickyard was repurchased and the more or less humdrum life was taken up again in the old homestead at Long Lane and Buck Road.
John's secular school days were now at an end. But for 74 years he continued to go regularly to Sunday school, and in 1922, the year of his death, he wrote to the World's Sunday School Convention in Tokio, 【東京October 5-14, 1920】which elected him its dent: "I regard the Sunday school as the principal educator of my life. Through the Holy Scriptures I found knowledge not to be obtained elsewhere, which established and developed fixed principles and foundations upon which all I am and whatever I have done were securely built and anchored."
"I found faith ... but much more I found in my Bible ... I found the Christ, the Son of Nature but also the Son of God, endowed by His Heavenly Father with power to transform character and life. , . . I could not reject the Bible and have nothing but a human mind and other human minds to guide me, when all of us were living in bodies subject to the same temptations, passions and weaknesses of those that the Bible showed had failed, wrecked their own lives and ruined nations. . . . Faith in God casteth out fear, and courage is a fundamental Christian virtue." 21-22
Although born a Methodist, and attending the Lutheran Sunday School, with his mother a member of the Reformed Church, when 12 years old he joined the Presbyterian denomination upon his return to Philadelphia. Perhaps it was this mixture of creeds that made him so tolerant and liberal in his work and life. 22
John Wanamaker wrote down in his own hand the foundations of John Chambers' belief and we shall see how exactly he made them the religion which he was "to live by
1. Christ demands full surrender.
2. Every follower of Christ is His messenger of good tidings.
3. Sunday is the Lord's day; it belongs to Him.
4. Alcohol is Satan's most powerful ally.
5. No man is beyond redemption. P. 24
At the age of fourteen Wanamaker found his first job or rather John Neff, superintendent of the Evangelical Lutheran Sunday School near his home, found it for him as errand boy for Troutman & Hayes, publishers, at 439 Market Street in Philadelphia, at $1.25 a week. 26
His $1.25 wage, paid on Saturday, he gave to his mother, who returned a little for spending money. But this little he saved "you must save, you must learn to save," he told other boys when he became a man, "I began by saving seven cents." 27
The boy was now almost a man 18 years old an impressionable age. He learned fast. He knew his stock and cared for it. One day a special lot of black neckties was given into his keeping. There were many of them, but John discovered that one was missing. He instituted a rigid search turned the place upside down, traced the tie to his chief who had given it to a friend when John had gone to luncheon. It was a joke to the Colonel, but it helped the boy's reputation.
This sort of storekeeping was bound to please Colonel Bennett, who soon became a friend, teaching his new stock boy much about the business. "John, was certainly the most ambitious boy I ever saw," he said years later, "I used to take him to lunch with me and he would tell me how he was going to be a great merchant. He was greatly interested in the temperance cause禁酒運動, and had not been with me long before he had persuaded most of the employees in the store to join the temperance society in which he was interested. He was always organizing something seemed to be a natural born organizer."
He was going to be a merchant; he would have his own store! This was ever in the boy's thoughts. But he stayed several years with Tower Hall, receiving small increases in salary. 28-29
At length came the day when he asserted his independence. He demanded a substantial increase or share in the business. Upon meeting with a refusal he told the Colonel he would open a store nearby and take his trade. Before the threat could be put into execution, Nature intervened. The boy's health broke. Tuberculosis threatened. He was ordered west. In this emergency, Colonel Bennett forgot their dispute. He offered to finance a long vacation. John was grateful, but still independent, and he was able to reply: "I have something saved, sir." When Wanamaker went west in 1857 he was uncertain in mind and in body as to the future. He might never return home. He might have to give up his growing ambition to become a merchant. But for the present he would see some of his country. He traveled 3,500 miles, exploring as far as Minnesota, and told in his own youthful way of what he saw in a letter written at the time. 30
But he also saw much to regret: "With a sad heart I refer to the carelessness and indifference manifested in many places to those principles of vital godliness upon which I sincerely believe rests the foundation of the peace and prosperity of the land, and I feel as we cultivate holiness of heart and spread the glorious tidings of peace, inculcating the truth as it is in Jesus, so do we bind together our beloved Union. Inseparable with our prosperity is the religion of the Bible.' (This was to be his life creed!) 31
"I am thankful, my brother, that I have the pleasure to say to you that my health has been in a great measure restored and I shall, the Lord willing, soon return, I hope with renewed energy, to engage in the service of the Lord. In conclusion I ask an interest in your prayers that I may be an humble and faithful child of God. May God love and keep you in the way of all truth, and may you abound in every good work is the prayer of
"Your humble brother in Christ."
Wanamaker returned to Philadelphia at the close of 1857, and probably in gratitude to God for his recovery to better health, although by no means fully restored, he abandoned business for a time and turned to religious activities, becoming the first paid-secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association, of which he was already a member and which had been started in Philadelphia by George H. Stuart in 1854. In this office he was paid what seemed to him a princely salary "beyond his worth,” he said "it is a shame to pay a thousand dollars a year to a young man to act as a Young Men's Christian Association secretary when he could not earn as much as that in any other business" not dreaming that he was to earn in his own business many thousand times this amount and to erect many Y. M, C. A. buildings in foreign lands!
But Y. M. C- A. duties during week days, and Church and Sunday school activities on Sunday not to mention the revivals were not enough to keep young John busy. So he founded a Sunday school of his own Bethany! A name ever to be linked with Wanamaker. In an address in 1885 he told how Bethany came to be organized.
"On one snowy winter afternoon, February 7th 1858," he says, "I went with Mr. E. H. Toland, one of the missionaries of the American Sunday School Union, to the second-story back room of a dwelling house, on Pine Street, near Twenty-third, to start a Mission School. A few children gathered, but not to stay, for the place was invaded by gangs of rowdy young men called 'killers' and 'bouncers” who came with clubs and took possession of our quarters. We fled from the room with fear and trembling.
"I was then but a boy, and soon got over my scare, and as it was not easy to give up what I had started to do, that same afternoon we hunted until we found another room. It was on South Street, number 2135, and we took the refusal that day. We returned during the week and rented the front second-story room for five dollars per month, and on the Sabbath, the 14th of February, 1858, we made the actual beginning of what was afterwards named the First Independent Mission, Some people could not get into their heads what Independent meant. We had to change the name and we next called it Chambers Mission School, and it finally settled to Bethany Mission School.
In 1908 this report was made:
"The largest Sunday School in the world reached its fiftieth anniversary this year at almost the same time that its founder is completing his three score and ten. The Sunday School is Bethany, of Philadelphia, and the man is John Wanamaker, whom Dr. A. T. Pierson once described as “a cross between a Presbyterian and a Methodist, with a sprinkle of independency, who would run a Sunday School by wind, water and steam, all at once anything to make it go.” Both events are occasions of special celebration by the great congregation and school of Bethany Church, whose success as a centrifugal center of religious influence has been so largely the result of the unremitting devotion and zeal of its able and attentive projector. His seventy years tell a story of devoted Christian service such as the lives of few noted men could duplicate. He has proved that it is possible to work a huge Christian success without forfeiting commercial prosperity; that a strong man can seek first the Kingdom and yet have all these other things also added to him."
About this time John Wanamaker wrote in his diary: "Is Bethany the glory or the tragedy of my life? Do you remember the name of the famous queen who, when told by her medical adviser that she had not long to live, said: 'A million pounds for a minute of time!' Daylight, dawn, and nightfall chase each other hard, and before we know it one seventh of the week is gone. Those Bethany Sundays are precious pearls making up the necklace of years. At times I feel that I starved and cheated myself, however, and that I starved and cheated those dear to me, driving so hard all day Sunday, by never being willing to leave it, to change, to modify. But why should I? I have always been happy in Bethany. It was the earliest habit I formed. It has been a blessing. It was a great tie for Mother Mary B. W. [his wife] and myself in the early days and has so remained. I might have done other things with greater effect. But if you are happy! Why people think my Bethany work is either virtue or pose I can't imagine. I have always just liked it, and there isn't anything else, not business, certainly, that I have just always liked and have gotten always satisfaction and blessing, not worry, out of." 36-37
From the first days every cent that could be spared from the small capital and still smaller sales was put into advertising. Billboards were used. Says one story of those early days: "There appeared all over town on billboards, fences, or wherever a bit of space could be found, a poster with simply 'W & B' on it in big wood type. Of course everybody was at once inquiring of everybody else: 'What does W & B mean?' and it soon became known that it stood for the new firm at Sixth and Market streets. At thirteen different places in the city they caused to be erected immense billboards, each over one hundred feet long, being the largest at that time ever put up, on which in large letters was of course all about the best clothing. These boards also became the talk of the town, and the newspapers remarked about them." 46
Although old-time Philadelphia merchants said "really, it isn't polite to advertise,” John Wanamaker continued his publicity and began to write it himself. And then began a series of business innovations that later largely revolutionized the store-keeping of his age.
"The quality of the goods will be guaranteed" he advertised on June 1, 1861. . . . The certainty of a published guarantee! He had already guaranteed: "Nothing but all- wool clothing." Now he guaranteed the quality. 49
Wanamaker did not sell jewels, but he was selling something much finer satisfaction! That was the core of his new store-keeping the public must be satisfied, which meant that the old legal maxim, caveat emptor, [貨物出門概不退換,買主須自行當心]was to be outlawed.
Only those of the present generation who travel to eastern countries and haggle and barter in the bazaars of Damascus, Jerusalem, Constantinople or Cairo can realize the uncertainty of trading that still prevailed in America so late as the Civil War. "The law of trading was then the law of the jungle," said Wanamaker, "take care of number one. The piles of the game were: don't pay the first price asked; look put for yourself in bargaining; haggle and beat the seller as hard as you can. Naturally the purchaser felt that the concessions he secured from the shop-keeper were so much money made for himself. But how little he knew! Most assuredly the store-keeper, butcher or grocer, always added to the price enough to cover what he had learned was what the customer would beat him down to. And when a thing was once sold it was sold no returns. Exchanges of goods were rare and discouraging; the return of money was never admissible unless for goods damaged when purchased. An inflexible one price did not exist. Schools in stores for training employees were unknown. All hours of service were long from 6:30 to 6:30 on week days and a fifteen-hour day on Saturdays. There were few holidays, no Saturday holidays, and no summer holidays without loss of pay. Hospitalities of waiting rooms, post offices, restaurants, hospital rooms, concert halls were unthought of."
What consternation驚愕, 驚駭then, when Oak Hall made this announcement:
"Any article that does not fit well, is not the proper color or quality, does not please the folks at home, or for any reason is not perfectly satisfactory, should be brought back at once, and if it is returned as purchased within ten days, we will refund the money. It is our intention always to give value for value in every sale we make, and those who are not pleased with what they buy do us a positive favor to return the goods and get the money back." 51-52
Does not please the folks at home! Imagine how that phrase sank into the minds of people long suffering at the hands of store-keepers. The principle of store-keeping was reversed overnight. It was no longer "the purchaser beware." It was "the purchaser be satisfied." A sale was no longer closed the moment the money was paid over. It remained open until the customer was satisfied. This, and this only, in Wanamaker's judgment, fulfilled the principle of fair trading that both parties to a deal must profit. 52
With "money back" guaranteed if the purchaser was not satisfied, the establishment in American store-keeping of one fixed price was bound to come. Many conflicting statements have been made about the origin of one-price. They arise largely from the fact that one-price was not an origination like Wanamaker's money-back offer. Rather it was a slow and painful growth out of the old slavish system of barter and haggle討價還價. 52-53
In this sense the stores of A. T. Stewart and John Wanamaker may fairly be said to have established one-price in the systems of American store-keeping, as being sound not only in morals, but in economics as well. How long and hard a fight it was is shown by the fact that even today, after half a century, prices are still broken in some shops of otherwise good character when a customer persists in haggling. 54
When the new store was opened on Chestnut Street reference was made to the "brown stone buildings" as a mark of quality. The advertisement of this store was over the name of John Wanamaker & Co. The new firm announced "a new era," saying we "will open a first class clothing establishment in large brown stone buildings at 818-820 Chestnut Street." The new store was advertised regularly on the front page of the Public Ledger but at first only items of goods on sale were given. 58
"Two little incidents in my life when a boy,” said John Wanamaker in 1919, "created the foundations of this business. One of these happened on a Christmas eve nearly seventy years ago. I had gone into a jewelry store to buy my mother a little gift. I had only a few dollars saved up for the purpose. I wanted to buy the best thing these dollars would buy. I guess I took a long time to look at the things in the jewelry cases. The jeweler was growing impatient. Finally I said “I’ll take that,” indicating a piece-- just what it was I do not recall.
"The jeweler began wrapping it up. Suddenly I saw another piece that I thought would better please my mother. 'Excuse me, sir,” I said, 'but I have changed my mind, I'll take this piece instead of the one you are wrapping.”
"You can imagine my surprise and chagrin when the jeweler answered: It's too late now. You've bought the first piece and you must keep it.' I was too abashed to protest. I took what I had first bought, but as I went out of the store I said to myself:
“When I have a store of my own the people shall have what they want.' "
He was to add to this later "and what they ought to have." 55
In September, 1873, Wanamaker made an announcement which is a classic in advertising, a model of terseness, simplicity, truth--
"People often wonder how it is that Wanamaker & Brown do so much business when other houses are so dull. There is nothing strange about it. The facts of the matter are simply as follows:
1. We advertise what we have for sale.
2. We have for sale what we advertise.
3. The people come and see that it is so.
4. The people buy our clothing because they are pleased with the garments we make.
5. The people are satisfied that they get full value for the money they leave with us and they come again and send their friends."
Assuredly, this was truth in advertising, truth in merchandise and in merchandising, straightforwardness in dealing, and satisfactory service to the public the platform of modern business was laid in 1873!
Oak Hall had now acquired national fame. It was no longer merely a Philadelphia store. It was the largest retail clothing business in the United States, and the most original and daring in its innovations. 61
Wanamaker had now reached these conclusions about store-keeping as he later expressed them:
First: that a store should not be a trap to catch something from each who enters it. .
Second: that advertising must say exactly what the store is and what it does. .
Third: that all the goods sold are called back again if the buyer is not pleased to retain them.
Fourth: fair prices for everything to everybody alike, without hidden reservations or concessions.
Fifth: that justice and honor require the exclusion of baits or even trifling deceptions; that customers whose confidence is invited and given are entitled to have their confidence respected and protected at every point.
Sixth; that patient and persistent training must be given to all the employees, to undo the education in the old long-time prevailing methods, to grow a new crop of business men and women to administer a new, broader, more enlightened and equitable system.
Wanamaker was now ready to announce, in complete form, all the business innovations that he had been testing and proving through these many years of hard-won experience. He was now to demonstrate what he said fifty years later:
"This store stands upon principles; its sole foundation is its principles, not its practices nor its profits. This is the inside of our heart to stand on our integrity, on principle, on honor, on justice, not only for the store but for our customers and for each other." 61-62
But a new obstacle was first to be met and overcome. It was the panic of 1873, the most disastrous business upheaval in the country's peaceful days. Many business houses went down under the stress but not Oak Hall Wanamaker weathered the panic of 1873, as he had weathered his earlier troubles of credit, because he had the confidence of the public as well as of wholesale merchants and importers with whom he dealt. The people trusted him to play fair. He trusted the people, even going so far as to announce on October 1, 1873, when credit was hazardous: "Checks take from buyers. Change given in cash."
"Your credit is good enough,” had written William Libbey of A. T. Stewart & Co., to Wanamaker in 1870 when the latter had asked to have extended some notes given for the entire output of a woolen factory controlled by Stewart and "you are able to take care of it in spite of all the lies that the devil may get into line to do their dirty work under his generalship." 62-63
"John Wanamaker has made an offer for the Grand Depot,” Colonel Scott told his visitors, much to their surprise. Wanamaker was reached by cable. "You may have the Grand Depot," he replied, "for $1 with repossession on thirty days' notice."
When the offer was accepted Wanamaker came home at once. He knew Moody. He had entertained him in his home. He was interested in his revivals. He was eager to help him. "The new store can wait a few months for its opening; the Lord's business first," he said.
The first Moody and Sankey meeting was held on Sunday, November 21, 1875, at 8 o'clock in the morning and 10,960 people attended. The meetings continued until January 28, 1876, having a total attendance of over a million at a cost of $40,000. During this time Moody was the guest of Wanamaker, and the two labored hand in hand, together with George H. Stuart and others on the committee.
Wanamaker was the practical manager. When Stuart ordered "all the chairs the Grand Depot can hold" 8900 for the main floor, 1300 for the platform, Wanamaker said: "add eight more and we'll squeeze them in exact numbers make a bigger impression than round numbers if the newspapers announce that we have 8904 seats for the audience and 1304 for the speakers and choir the people will remember the figures." (All through his later advertising Wanamaker followed this practice insisting on announcing the exact figures "tell the exact quantity and the people will believe; round numbers sound as though you are merely guessing.") 77
THE NATION'S HIGHEST HONOR TO A MERCHANT
WHAT was considered at the time to be the climax of John Wanamaker's life was the dedication on December 30, 1911, of his new Philadelphia store building by the President of the United States, William Howard Taft. "It is his monument," people said. "A house of business, a private enterprise, dedicated by the Chief Magistrate of the country! Can any merchant rise higher than that?"
To Wanamaker, however, the occasion was only a passing milestone. He was 73 years old. But his life or his work had by no means come to an end. The new building was not his monument. He was very much alive, and there were still greater things to do. But the dedication seemed to be the fulfillment of his life's work.
"Surely no store was ever dedicated in so impressive a manner," said the Philadelphia Public Ledger In an editorial: "It may be in keeping to say that few buildings or monuments have ever received such a baptism. In the presence of 30,000 persons, and under circumstances that will mark the incident as a bit of history of Philadelphia, President Taf t pronounced the dedicating words and delivered an address that aroused that great throng to storm after storm of cheers."
"The most notable tribute that was ever paid to any private business," commented the Philadelphia North American, "was that offered to John Wanamaker and to the great mercantile enterprise which he created. On rare occasions in the history of the country the President of the United States has lent the prestige and dignity of his great office to honor some business of a public character the opening of a transcontinental railway which was to add an empire to the domain of the republic, a vast exposition to celebrate some towering historical event, or some event of a similarly public character. But probably never before has the head of this or any other nation had occasion to honor so signally a business man, who, howsoever public have been the benefits his business bestowed, is still a simple, private merchant; an ad- vanced exponent of the old-fashioned idea of private owner- ship of business regulated by the natural laws of competition."
President Taft was introduced to the vast assemblage by Rudolph Blankenburg, Mayor of Philadelphia, who said:
"To have the foremost citizen of the land as the guest of honor on this auspicious occasion is an honor, indeed, which is fully appreciated, not only by the Founder, but by the whole citizenship of Philadelphia. He represents today one hundred million people, and through him one hundred million people will be advised of the esteem in which one of this vast number, one of our own citizens, is held by the occupant of the highest office in any land."
President Taft spoke as follows:
"It is now twenty years ago since I had the pleasure of joining the administration of Benjamin Harrison at Washington and there becoming acquainted, as an humble associate in that administration, with John Wanamaker of Philadelphia, then Postmaster-General. It has been a great pleasure to me to know and to feel that the friendship and mutual respect there begun have continued until the present day, and it has given me the greatest pleasure to come here and take part in this ceremony at the moment of the greatest triumph of John Wanamaker's long and useful life.
"We are here to celebrate the completion, in its highest type, of one of the most important instrumentalities in modern life for the promotion of comfort among the people. The department store which brings under one roof the opportunity to purchase, at the lowest reasonable, constant and fixed price, everything that is usually needed upon the person or in the household for the sustaining of life, for recreation and for intellectual enjoyment (except food alone) means a reduction in the cost of living and necessary effort that we do not always appreciate.
"It has been given to Mr. Wanamaker, the Founder of this great institution, to begin the formation of this new instrumentality for the betterment of the condition of men, and to pursue the work of its improvement for fifty years, until now the end crowns his labor. The introduction into the conduct of his business of rigid rules as to the fixedness of the price; accuracy of representation as to the quality; the conveniences accorded to all in the return of unsatisfactory goods; and the delivery without cost, or at a reasonable cost according to the distance, of the goods to the home of the purchaser; together with such economical arrangement in sales as to reduce to a minimum the effort necessary to examine the goods to be purchased; the concentration and cooperation of the different branches of the business to reduce expense and increase efficiency; all call for an executive genius that hardly finds its counterpart.
"With no adventitious aid, with no combinations in restraint of competition, but simply by a natural growth and aggregation of means to an end, this great business was built up here in Philadelphia, and there in New York, to form a model for all other stores of the same kind throughout the country and throughout the world. Growing, as it has, out of the traditions of a fifty years' life of business, it seems to have acquired its own personality, different even from that of the Founder, so that he finds himself bound by the very rules he created and the traditions that have worked to eminent success.
"On this day, when we can look back half a century to the humble beginnings of this enormous business machine with its thirteen thousand employees and its millions of constant customers. It is right that there should be a ceremony dedicatory and congratulatory, to show the appreciation that the country at large has for the successful creation of an aid to the happiness of the people that is substantial and permanent.
"The feature which Mr. Wanamaker has introduced in his stores of an educational system, in which his working employees can add to their intellectual attainment and increase their efficiency in the discharge of their duties, is the most noteworthy feature of his whole system; and the retirement plan, by which he takes care of those who be- come superannuated in his service, and offers to those who look forward to the future a comfortable old age, shows the long foresight that he has exhibited in all his business, whereby human nature, both in the people at large and in his own employees, responds in full measure to the justice and generosity that he metes out to them, by the patronage that his customers give, and by the faithful, enthusiastic and most effective service which his employees render.
"I congratulate Mr. Wanamaker that he has been spared in his long and active life until this moment, and that he can look around and see, in all its inspiring whole, this enduring monument to the clearsightedness and genius of his business career."
At the close of his formal address, the President looked about the great marble Court of Honor, with its tier on tier of humanity rising to the roof, and with a sweep of his hand he expressed his admiration and wonder:
"As I came in the carriage with Mr. Wanamaker, I said to him: 1 have a few words here to say not more than five hundred or a thousand.' He said: 'It doesn't make any difference how many you have got down you will have to say a good many more when you get there!' And it is true. No one can stand here in this magnificent structure without being awe-inspired, and without thinking that it is inspired in this: that it has been worked out in the brain of the greatest architect in America in order to develop the genius and show the magnificent work of the greatest merchant in America. I have been asked to direct the words of a tablet to be erected in this marble chamber" and the President then read the following words inscribed on the Dedicatory Tablet to be placed in the Grand Court:
IN THIS MARBLE COURT
WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT
UNITED STATES ON THE 30th OF DECEMBER, 1911
AT THE CLOSE OF THE GOLDEN JUBILEE YEAR
IN THE PRESENCE OF
THIRTY THOUSAND CITIZENS
DEDICATED THIS BUILDING
A LANDMARK OF LABOR AND A SIGNATURE IN STONE
TO THE POWER OF CONCENTRATION AND CO-OPERATION
IN MERCANTILE PURSUITS
UNDER FREEDOM OF COMPETITION
AND THE BLESSING
Wanamaker's most important speech was delivered November 4, 1916, at Wilmington, and was an attack on the Democratic party, as withering as Roosevelt's, but not an attack on the President personally.
"There is God's work to be done by the United States. Christianity has not broken down. Humanity has not deteriorated. Only the machinery of the Church and government has failed.
"I still have faith in the Church that has in it the spirit of Christianity. And I have unbounded faith in a representative government of the people.
"Let a call go out from America to the churches of the world to preach peace, talk peace, live peace a call in all languages.
"Let the churches and schools and governments at peace send out this call to the people of the world a call for peace with honor for peace with mercy for peace with forgiveness a righteous peace that will be permanent because built upon the rights of humanity.
Physically weak as a boy, strong as a man, he lived to 84 years, working not six but seven days a week (in business and church), taking very little physical exercise after the age of 45, before which he and his wife would ride horse- back on two gray farm horses on his estate at Lindenhurst.
Requiring no exercise or recreation himself, he was tardy in discovering the need of it in others. When an associate asked for an afternoon off he was given permission but in a sort of "are-you-ill" way. Before he died, however, he began to understand the philosophy of play and recreation, and one day he said to Aleck Findlay, often called the father of golf in America, who was one of his store family: "Come out to my house this afternoon and show me how far you can hit a golf ball I think you've been exaggerating."
At public and private office and at church and Sunday school he was always on hand early in the morning. He wrote: "The very smallness of the matter of being five minutes late makes it less excusable. Hurry is the child of unpunctuality, procrastination and irritability. To pay a fine for the five or ten minutes late would not be any compensation to a dozen other men kept waiting with other engagements to fulfill. We haven't any right to throw things out of gear. No one should be considered eligible for a place on a committee or board who is a chronic behind-timer."
By 8 o'clock he was usually at the store. When his chiefs grew lax and came late, he would take his stand at the door as an object lesson and await their arrival, if it kept him until 10 o'clock. As they arrived he would merely smile and say "good morning." They were not again late, at least not soon.
Mostly he spent the early morning hours in walking over the store. "I can see things better,” he would say, "when not so many people are around."
HIS PHILOSOPHY OF LIVING 他的生活哲學
At another time he summed up his idea of life's necessities as "religion first, earning power next, and a vision of general culture later" adding that "the man or woman will need them all, but the first two are actual necessities*" And again he wrote: "There is nothing in this world that has given me the satisfaction that the time spent in the service of God and His people has given me. The things of this world pass away, but the things of God are eternal." 322
He early learned the necessity of making money and of saving it. Born without fortune, thrift節儉, 節約became an early habit., "Thrift," he said, "is one of the foundation stones of character. . . . Many young people believe that a good appearance is of more importance than anything else, but unless it is supplemented by habits of thrift, it will not get one very far. . . . An active account in a savings bank is one of the best recommendations that a young man or young woman can have, because it indicates that they intend to try and succeed by their own efforts, and not depend on others for their success. . . . The way to save is to begin at once . . . once a person has acquired the habit of saving, it is a pleasure to watch it grow, with the added satisfaction of knowing that there is something to fall back upon in an emergency."
Wanamaker made money by earning it, but he never let it become his god, "The jingle of money in the merchant's till will never satisfy the real man." But he would preach the necessity of making money to keep a great business going, "We must all earn more money,” he said one day to his people. "But you cannot get more money if you don't earn it."
About riches he wrote: "There is no harm in being rich, if the rich man's spirit is right." And again: "There are various kinds of riches. The richest men personally known to the writer as rich men, according to the usual standard, were few, but none of them Cornelius Vanderbilt, Alexander T. Stewart, H. B. Claflin, A. J. Drexel, the Rothschilds of Vienna, the Rothschilds of Frankfort-on-the-Main, the Gurneys of London outranked a little man, merchant on Market Street, who years ago commenced as an apprentice and afterwards as a journeyman, and gave away a tenth of his income to the day of his death, nearly forty years, when he endowed a school which is still in existence and his life is thus going on-- I. V. Williamson, who lived to save that he might have it to give. His riches were not in the amounts of the hundreds and thousands he made and saved, but in the even and constant and ever apparent riches of mind and heart that led him to keep his pocketbook open and pouring out in the intensity of delight and genuine happiness of real liberality, which brought into his life something unknown to a man who had never known the joy of giving who gave only under special pressure and when he could not avoid it."
"I think it is possible for you to succeed, because we came out from God, the source of life, to do something He fitted us for in the world He made for man, and the life He gave to each must go back to Him to give account of what the man did with it. I do not think He made us in His own image and likeness without meaning to help us to success, and we must admit the Creator surely has a right to elect His own way to do His work." 340
"A man's character," he wrote for the Alexander Hamilton Institute in 1917, "is the mark, the impress, the absolute individuality engraven into his life, which does not change and cannot be rubbed out. His reputation may be this or that, or what people think of him, or what people say about him; his reputation may change from good to bad and from bad to good, and his reputation may be an altogether mistaken estimate but his character is different. The character of a man is what he makes of himself, while his reputation is what other people think about him.
"A man's character is generally formed in the first 20 years of his life. In some degree it is influenced by his associations and environment; in some degree by education. But all these are only small influences compared with the measure that a man's own definite purpose, his own will, his own clear sight of right and wrong, his own physical and especially his own moral courage, have in the determination of what his character is to be. The first thing is his business life is probity誠實; 廉潔; the first thing in his domestic life is sound affection; the first thing in his spiritual life is an unswerving belief in the inspired word of God and in the value of his own soul." 340-341
In the depths of sorrow, in his own family or in the home of a friend, he would quote from memory, or read from the much-thumbed pages of the small Bible which he kept ever in his pocket, some words of faith and comfort.
He knew what his job was. It was to make the most of the life that was in him, in whatever path that life would lead him. He was willing to be led by this life he felt within him. He trusted it. He followed it implicitly. In him, life and conscience and God were one. 349
Writing in 1922 to the World's Sunday School Convention in Tokio which he was prevented from attending because of his wife's illness, but which nevertheless elected him its president for the ensuing year after stating that he regarded the Sunday school as the principal education of his life and that through the Holy Scriptures he found knowledge not to be obtained elsewhere, which established and developed fixed principles and foundations upon which all he was and whatever he had done were securely built upon and anchored, he added:
"What good is there in rejecting the Bible? A mere abstract belief that God exists is not of much practical value. I found in my Bible the Christ, the Son of nature but also the Son of God whoever will do what Christ tells him will find faith and freedom and power in trying to imitate Him, and by prayer to the Father, in His Name, will be wonderfully helped to live his life and do things that will benefit the world." 351-352
John Wanamaker died as he had wished to die "in the harness馬具," as nearly as possible without sudden death. His last active day in the business was spent in the New York Store, Wednesday, September 19, 1922, where as usual he met with three of his chief executives and talked over affairs of the store and of the world in general.
He was very tired. He attempted nothing more after his conference. He ate luncheon, rested, and returned to Philadelphia on the 4 o'clock train. But upon reaching Philadelphia he went not to his home, but to Bethany Church, to Wednesday evening's prayer meeting. From there he went to the Masonic Temple to a lodge meeting. At midnight he reached his home at Lindenhurst. The next morning he was still tired. Going to his office his doctor saw him there and ordered him home. He went reluctantly. He never returned to business.
His illness a deep cold at first confined him only to his room. He kept on with his writing business editorials. Soon writing was denied him as he took to his bed. He still read. Then reading was denied him. He gradually grew weaker.
To be nearer his doctors he was removed to his city home. Two days before he died he asked his daughter: "How am I?" She replied: "Well, here are the doctors, they will tell you." "No, I don't want to know what they think how do I look to you?" Then hearing his butler and valet talking in the next room he became aware that the butler was going to New York the next day to visit his son. He called him to his bedside. "Bracken," he said, "don't go empty- handed. Take something to Rodman, give him my love and tell him I will soon be over to see him."
When Bracken returned two days later, December 12, John Wanamaker was dead.
Of course, he was buried from Bethany. And there thousands of people, unable to gain entrance during the service, stood with bared heads on a cold, sleety雨雪的day while at the windows of houses for blocks around were tear-stained faces. Within the church the Bethany Brotherhood sat in a body, as tears streamed down the faces of gray-haired men. They had lost a friend, a father.
At the Memorial Services held January 14, 1923, Dr. MacLennan said: "The Presbyterian Church in the United States records the loss of its most distinguished layman of the five millions of members. The world has lost one of its outstanding men, not of one generation, but of many generations."
Dr. Tompkins, of the Episcopal Church, said: "We hear people say it is impossible for a man to be successful in business and yet be a Christian. Mr. Wanamaker's life gives the lie to that declaration."
Bishop Berry, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, said: "He was probably the most influential layman of the Protestant Church. His life speaks to us of his ardent love for the Bible, of his loyalty to the Christian Sabbath, of his practical interest in every moral reform. His public life was as true to Christian standards as was his life in business or at home. His ideal for a successful merchant was one of alertness, frankness, honesty, fair-dealing, generous treatment of employees, and downright enthusiasm in every avenue of his crowded life. No wonder his name became a household word in tens of thousands of American homes."
Dr. MacColl, of the Second Presbyterian Church, said: "John Wanamaker made of life a great and noble calling. I think among the tributes that have been paid to him, nothing is more suggestive of the large spirit of the man, nothing is more beautiful than the tributes that have been paid to him by representatives of the Jewish faith and of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as by all these groups which find a point of common contact and service in their evangelical faith."
Dr. Conwell, of Grace Baptist Temple, said: "Let him live on! The dead speak and he speaketh! We want to go down to the small boy now in the brickyard and say, 'You can be as great as John Wanamaker. We must say to the errand boy, 'You can be a John Wanamaker or a George W. Childs.’ We want to say to the boy beginning his life work in the mill, the shop, the office or wherever he be, Tou have a chance, and even a better chance than John Wanamaker.' We want to declare, You can be the same Christian that he was. You can have the same Saviour, and do the same good things he did, if you will work together with God.' We want John Wanamaker's life to go into all parts of the country and among all classes of people, and give them encouragement to a noble life, to a real, true Christianity, to a friendship, and a divine love, that will lead them to imitate his characteristics.
"I remember Mr. Wanamaker in our church one time, with the choir singing, 'Does the World See Jesus in Me?' He said, “Yes, that is the question, does the world see Jesus in me?'
"Let us that love him go on and be built up in the holy faith and in the Son of the Living God."
The Presbytery of Philadelphia said: "He was not bom to die, but to live as an inspiration to everybody who is not lifted at birth to fame and fortune, but has to meet the terrible realities of life at the bottom of the ladder. If Mr. Wanamaker could speak today he would say, 'Climb, boy, climb up the Christian ladder to heights above!'" 358-361
Rodman Wanamaker and Indians 他的二兒子，後來的承繼人
And Rodman Wanamaker,, though conserving the financial stability of the business and adding to it, was led through his crusading spirit to expend great sums of money in art, aviation and music, without thought of financial return. He crusaded for the rights of the North American Indian and would not stop until the Indian was granted citizenship by the United States.