新約用詞研究:金燈luchnia λυχνία

蔡少琪

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Strong's Greek: 3087. λυχνία (luchnia) -- a lampstand

Wiki Greek-English Lexicon - λυχνία - lampstand (n.)

 

1:12七個金燈:舊約的金燈一個燈上有七個燈,這七燈是相連。約翰的描述是談舊約的模式,定是說七個分開的燈呢?不同學者有不同看法。無論如何,這表達是與七個教會的七字用法有關。Leon Morris認為:『如吹號的大聲音是在後面響起,所以約翰便轉過身來要看看是誰在說話,既轉過來,就看見七個金燈有人以為燈的典故出自舊約(出二十五31,或是王上七49,又或是亞四2),但上列各處沒有一處是提到七座分開的燈。約翰的言語或者有呼應舊約之處,但思想完全是獨特的。

 

Matthew Henry Commentary: “The churches are compared to candlesticks, because they hold forth the light of the gospel to advantage. The churches are not candles: Christ only is our light, and his gospel our lamp; but they receive their light from Christ and the gospel, and hold it forth to others. They are golden candlesticks, for they should be precious and pure, comparable to fine gold; not only the ministers, but the members of the churches ought to be such; their light should so shine before men as to engage others to give glory to God.”[1]

 

何衛中: 主耶穌對七教會的自我介紹:

『在第一章主解釋七星就是七個教會的使者,七燈臺就是七個教會。如今主對以弗所教會自我介紹,祂右手拿着七星,在七個金燈臺中間行走,也即是說,所有教會的使者都是操縱在主的右手中;右手代表權柄,祂有權柄管理支配所有教會的使者。以弗所教會是第一個主耶穌要對她說話的教會,故主對她先作如此的自我介紹是說:所有教會的使者,都是在祂右手中任祂支配,差遣,管理的,沒有一個使者能夠越出主的右手,都是在祂的掌握之下;另外,七個金燈臺是代表七個教會,那就是主耶穌一直在教會中行走,故歷來教會無論處在甚麼光景,主都在他們中間,主從來沒有放棄過祂的教會。這給我們知道今天所有教會的使者,以及所有的教會,都在主的掌權之下,我們要尊服基督為教會之元首,這是教會和所有的僕人都要認識的。』

 

七個金燈台

 e�pta;  lucni�a"  crusa'"  

1:12七個金燈 (ἑπτὰ λυχνίας χρυσᾶς)

ἑπτὰ (hepta)是『七』的意思(seven)。

λυχνίαςλυχνία (luchnia)的眾數詞,λυχνία在舊約LXX約出現47次。和合本翻譯為燈,英文多翻譯為lampstandcandlestick

首次出現在:出25:31用精金作一個 (λυχνίαν)燈臺(λυχνίαν)的座和幹與杯,球,花,都要接連一塊錘出來。

χρυσᾶς是形容詞,出自χρυσοῦς (chrusous),是『金的』意思英文多翻譯為golden

這是來自舊約:出25:40要謹慎作這些物件,都要照著在山上指示你的樣式。3717-24

 

相關經文:

37:18臺兩旁杈出六個枝子,這旁三個那旁三個37:17-24

3:9看哪,我在約書亞面前所立的石頭,在一塊石頭上有七眼。萬軍之耶和華說:我要親自雕刻這石頭,並要在一日之間除掉這地的罪孽。[2]

4:2他問我說:你看見了甚麼,我說:我看見了一個純金的燈,頂上有燈盞,上有七盞燈每盞有七個管子。[3]

4:10誰藐視這日的事為小呢,這七眼乃是耶和華的眼睛遍察全地,見所羅巴伯手拿線鉈就歡喜。

 

一詞的希伯來文是h�rOn.m\Menorah),猶太人有兩種燈的設計。

在聖殿用的七個台的燈檯:(Menorah (Temple) - a seven-branched candelabrum used in the ancient Tabernacle in the desert and Temple in Jerusalem, a symbol of Judaism since ancient times and the emblem of the modern state of Israel.[4][5]

File:Menorah 0307.jpg圖片引自wiki網站

聖經說:出25:32燈臺兩旁要杈出六個枝子這旁三個那旁三個

File:Menora Titus.jpg圖片引自wiki網站

A drawing on the depiction of the Menorah seen on the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Arch_of_Titus_Menorah.png/400px-Arch_of_Titus_Menorah.png

Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome.

The Temple Menorah—Where Is It? By Steven Fine Biblical Archaeology Review 30, no. 4 (2005)

A stone engraved with a menorah from a Second Temple period synagogue was excavated at Migdal in Israel. Photo: Isranet

A stone engraved with a menorah from a Second Temple period synagogue was excavated at Migdal in Israel. 2009

現代猶太人的Hanukkah(獻殿節、光明節、燭光節)則是有九枝的。(約在11月底,12月初

Hanukkah圖片引自wiki網站

[PDF]   The Seven Branch Menorah The Seven Churches in Revelation

其中一個說法:「“七”字在聖經中是完全的數字,猶太人還認為“七”是最神聖,最完全的。“七燈臺”就是預表普世教會,七個教會的使者就是教會的教牧同工,長執及信徒們。金燈臺發出光來是那麼完美,它是上帝完全看顧的教會。

葉少桓的〈金燈臺的亮

 

于中旻:〈金燈臺的見證〉:「會幕的燈臺是用精金作成的(出二五:31-40),表明有神屬天的榮耀。我們奉獻給神的,必須是真純的,最好的,不能羼雜不純正的東西。」「燈臺自己不能發光,必須有橄欖油經過管子,注在燈盞堶情C神給先知撒迦利亞看見,金燈臺旁邊有兩棵橄欖樹,注油在燈臺堶情A表明是靠聖靈的能力(亞四:2-6),不是人自己能作甚麼。」

 

翁繩佑:啟示錄中“得勝的基督”〉:「得勝的基督是教會的主(一三章)

1. 基督站在金燈“中間”(一13--“金燈臺”是教會榮耀見證的預表;“中間”說明基督在那控制着祂自己的教會。可見無論教會落到怎樣可怕和可憐的光景,得勝的基督一直站在那眷顧和保守着祂的教會,因為祂是“教會的主”2. 基督在金燈“行走”二:1--我們的主不但站在金燈的中間,也在金燈中“行走”。“行走”表明正在巡視,監督,察看,稱讚,責備,提醒和管教,其目的為要使教會達到創造和救贖的得勝之目的。」

 

孫寶玲在《啟示錄:萬王之王》指出:「在先知傳統裡,金燈臺的七燈代表神的眼目(亞四210)。而在列王紀上描述金燈臺置於聖殿至聖所內,表示神的所在(七49)。甚至在一世紀及較後期的猶太傳統裡,七個金燈臺被視為作天上星宿的表述,繼而象徵猶太信仰傳統中公義和智慧之士。」(頁67

 

λυχνία (luchnia)燈臺一詞在新約出現12次。

5:15

人點燈( )不放( )底下( )是放在上,就照亮一家的人。( )

οὐδὲ καίουσιν λύχνον καὶ τιθέασιν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, καὶ λάμπει πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ

4:21

耶穌又對他們說:人拿( )來,( )豈是要放在( )底下( )床底下,放在( )上嗎?( )

8:16

沒有人點燈用器皿蓋上,或放在床底下,乃是放在上,叫進來的人看見亮光( )

11:33

沒有人點燈放在地窨子裡,或是( )底下,總是放在上,使進來的人得見亮光( )

9:2

因為有預備的帳幕,頭一層叫作聖所,裡面有( )桌子,和陳設( )

1:12

我轉過身來,要看是誰( )發聲與我說話;既轉過來,就看見七個金燈( )

YLT Revelation 1:12 And I did turn to see the voice that did speak with me, and having turned, I saw seven golden lamp-stands,

Καὶ ἐπέστρεψα βλέπειν τὴν φωνὴν ἥτις ἐλάλει μετ' ἐμοῦ: καὶ ἐπιστρέψας εἶδον ἑπτὰ λυχνίας χρυσᾶς

1:13

中間有一位好像人子,身穿長衣,直垂到腳( )胸間束著金帶( )

NIV Revelation 1:13 and among the lampstands was someone "like a son of man," dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest.

YLT Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the seven lamp-stands BGT, one like to a son of man, clothed to the foot, and girt round at the breast with a golden girdle,

καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν λυχνιῶν ὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου, ἐνδεδυμένον ποδήρη καὶ περιεζωσμένον πρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς ζώνην χρυσᾶν

1:20

論到你所( )看見、在我右手中的七星和七個金燈的奧,那七星就是七個教會的使者( )七燈就是七個教會( )

NIV Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and of the seven golden lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

YLT Revelation 1:20 the secret of the seven stars that thou hast seen upon my right hand, and the seven golden lamp-stands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven assemblies, and the seven lamp-stands that thou hast seen are seven assemblies.

τὸ μυστήριον τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων οὓς εἶδες ἐπὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς μου, καὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ λυχνίας τὰς χρυσᾶς: οἱ ἑπτὰ ἀστέρες ἄγγελοι τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν εἰσιν, καὶ αἱ λυχνίαι αἱ ἑπτὰ ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαι εἰσίν

2:1

你要寫信給以所教會的使者( )說:那右手拿著七星( )在七個金燈中間行走的,說:( )

NIV Revelation 2:1 "To the angel of the church in Ephesus write: These are the words of him who holds the seven stars in his right hand and walks among the seven golden lampstands:

Τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον: Τάδε λέγει κρατῶν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν

2:5

所以,應當回想你是從那裡墜落的,並要悔改( )行起初所行的事。你若不悔改( ),我就( )臨到你那裡( )你的燈原處挪 ( )

NIV Revelation 2:5 Remember the height from which you have fallen! Repent and do the things you did at first. If you do not repent, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place.

μνημόνευε οὖν πόθεν πέπτωκας, καὶ μετανόησον καὶ τὰ πρῶτα ἔργα ποίησον: εἰ δὲ μή, ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ κινήσω τὴν λυχνίαν σου ἐκ τοῦ τόπου αὐτῆς, ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσῃς

11:4

他們就是那兩棵橄欖樹( )兩個燈,立在世界之主( )面前的。( )

NIV Revelation 11:4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.

οὗτοί εἰσιν αἱ δύο ἐλαῖαι καὶ αἱ δύο λυχνίαι αἱ ἐνώπιον τοῦ κυρίου τῆς γῆς ἑστῶτες

孫寶玲在《啟示錄:萬王之王》指出:『就啟示錄本身而言,燈臺是教會的象徵,也有神的靈的含義。約翰的焦點明顯不是在於個人,而是教會。教會就是被神的另所充滿的聖殿,也是見證神的道的燈臺。』『啟示錄第十一章中的兩個見證人是結合了舊約先知的遭遇和耶穌的生平與職事的象徵。兩個見證人就是所有神僕人的代表。』(頁256258[6]

 

舊約的h�rOn.m\Menorah)一詞在31節經文中,出現約42次。

25:31

「要用精金做一個( )的座和幹與杯、球、花,都要接連一塊出來( )

25:32

兩旁要杈出六個枝子:這旁三個( )那旁三個 ( )

YLT Exodus 25:32 and six branches are coming out of its sides, three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the second side;

25:33

這旁每枝上有三個杯,形狀像杏花,有球,有花;那旁每枝上也有三個杯,形狀像杏花,有球,有花。從燈杈出來的六個枝子都是如此( )

25:34

上有四個杯,形狀像杏花,有球,有花( )

25:35

每兩枝子以下有球與枝子接連一塊,燈出的六個枝子都是如此。( )

26:35

把桌子安在幔子外帳幕的北面;把燈安在帳幕的南面,彼此相對 ( )

30:27

桌子與桌子的一切器具( )和燈的器具,並香壇( )

31:8

桌子和桌子的器具( )精金的和燈的一切器具並香壇( )

35:14

和燈的器具( )燈盞並點燈的油( )

37:17

他用精金做一個燈( )這燈的座和幹,與杯、球、花,都是接連一塊出來的( )

37:18

臺兩旁杈出六個枝子:這旁三個那旁( ) ( )

37:19

這旁每枝上有三個杯,形狀像杏花,有球有花;那旁每枝上也有三個杯,形狀像杏花,有球有花。從燈杈出來的六個枝子都是如此( )

37:20

上有四個杯,形狀像杏花,有球有花( )

39:37

精金的臺和擺列的燈盞,與燈的一切器具,並點燈的油( )

40:4

把桌子搬進去,擺設上面的物( )。把燈搬進去,點其上的燈( )

40:24

又把燈會幕內在帳幕南邊與桌子相對( )

猶太傳統說法 “The Kodesh (holy area) in the Mikdash is comparable to the Kodesh in the Mishkan. Inside were three vessels: the golden Menorah in the south, the Table of the Showbread in the north, and to the east of these, in the center of the Kodesh, the Incense Altar. Our Sages said: "One who wishes to become wise should go south, and one who wishes to become wealthy should go north. This is alluded to by the location of the Menorah in the south and the Table of the Showbread in the north." (Baba Batra 25:b).”

24:4

他要在耶和華面前常收拾精金燈臺( )。」( )

3:31

他們所要看守的是約櫃、桌子、燈兩座壇與聖所內使用的器皿,並簾子和一切使用之物。( )

4:9

要拿藍色毯子,把燈和燈上所用的燈盞( )剪子( )蠟花盤,並一切盛油的器皿,全都遮蓋( )

8:2

「你告訴亞倫說:點燈的時候,七盞燈都要向燈前面發光。」( )

8:3

亞倫便這樣行。他點燈上的燈,使燈向前發光,是照耶和華所吩咐摩西的。( )

8:4

這燈的作法是用金子出來的,連座帶花都是錘出來的。摩西製造燈,是照耶和華所指示的樣式( )

王上

7:49

內殿前的精金燈臺:右邊五個,左邊五個,並其上的金花、燈盞、蠟剪( )

王下

4:10

我們可以為他在牆上蓋一間小樓,在其中安放床榻、桌子、椅子、燈( )他來到我們這裡,就可以住在( )其間。」( )

代上

28:15

金燈臺和金燈的,銀燈臺和銀燈的分兩( )輕重各都合宜( )

代下

4:7

他又照所定的樣式造十個金燈放在殿裡:五個在右邊,五個在左邊( )

代下

4:20

並精金的燈和燈盞,可以照例點在內殿前( )

代下

13:11

每日早晚向耶和華獻祭,燒美香,又精金的桌子上擺陳設餅;又有金燈和燈盞,每晚點起,因為我們遵守耶和華我們神的命;惟有你們離棄了他( )

52:19

( )火鼎( )( )( )( )調羹( ),無論金的銀的,護衛長也都帶去了。( )

4:2

他問我說:「你看見了甚麼?」我說:「我看見了一個純金的( )上有盞燈,燈上有七盞燈,每盞有七個管子 ( )

4:11

我又問天使說:「這左右的兩棵橄欖樹是甚麼意思?」( )

 

 

 

 



[1] http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/revelation/1.html?p=4.

[2] YLT Zechariah 3:9 For lo, the stone that I put before Joshua, On one stone are seven eyes, Lo, I am graving its graving, An affirmation of Jehovah of Hosts, And I have removed the iniquity of that land in one day.

BGT Zechariah 3:9 dio,ti o` li,qoj o]n e;dwka pro. prosw,pou VIhsou/ evpi. to.n li,qon to.n e[na e`pta. ovfqalmoi, eivsin ivdou. evgw. ovru,ssw bo,qron le,gei ku,rioj pantokra,twr kai. yhlafh,sw pa/san th.n avdiki,an th/j gh/j evkei,nhj evn h`me,ra| mia/|

[3] YLT Zechariah 4:2 and he saith unto me, 'What art thou seeing?' And I say, 'I have looked, and lo, a candlestick of gold -- all of it, and its bowl is on its top, and its seven lamps are upon it, and twice seven pipes are to the lights that are on its top,

BGT Zechariah 4:2 kai. ei=pen pro,j me ti, su, ble,peij kai. ei=pa e`w,raka kai. ivdou. lucni,a crush/ o[lh kai. to. lampa,dion evpa,nw auvth/j kai. e`pta. lu,cnoi evpa,nw auvth/j kai. e`pta. evparustri,dej toi/j lu,cnoij toi/j evpa,nw auvth/j

 

[4] Until 2009, the earliest preserved representation of the menorah of the Temple was depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus, commemorating his triumphal parade in Rome following the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70. In 2009, however, the ruins of a synagogue with pottery dating from before the destruction of the Second Temple were discovered under land in Magdala owned by the Legionaries of Christ, who had intended to construct a center for women's studies. Inside that synagogue's ruins was discovered a rectangular stone, which had on its surface, among other ornate carvings, a depiction of the seven-branched menorah differing markedly from the depiction on the Arch of Titus, probably carved by an eyewitness to the actual menorah present at the time in the Temple at Jerusalem. This menorah has arms which are polygonal, not rounded, and the base is not graduated but triangular.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menorah_(Temple)

 

[5]  Within the Holy Temple, the menorah stood inside the Sanctuary on the southern side, and its seven lamps were to be lit in such a manner, that they would all shine towards the center. Each day a priest would tend to its the lamps' flames, fixing and preparing the wicks and kindling them anew.

http://www.templeinstitute.org/menorah.htm

 

[6]3:6耶和華的使者誥誡約書亞說:

3:7萬軍之耶和華如此說:你若遵行我的道,謹守我的命令,你就可以管理我的家,看守我的院宇,我也要使你在這些站立的人中間來往。

3:8大祭司約書亞阿,你和坐在你面前的同伴都當聽,他們是作豫兆的。)我必使我僕人大衛的苗裔發出。

3:9看哪,我在約書亞面前所立的石頭,在一塊石頭上有七眼。萬軍之耶和華說:我要親自雕刻這石頭,並要在一日之間除掉這地的罪孽。

4:2他問我說:你看見了甚麼,我說:我看見了一個純金的燈,頂上有燈盞,燈上有七盞燈,每盞有七個管子。

4:3旁邊有兩棵橄欖樹,一棵在燈盞的右邊,一棵在燈盞的左邊

4:4我問與我說話的天使說:主阿,這是甚麼意思。

4:5與我說話的天使回答我說:你不知道這是甚麼意思麼,我說:主阿,我不知道。

4:6他對我說:這是耶和華指示羅巴伯的,萬軍之耶和華說:不是倚靠勢力,不是倚靠才能,乃是倚靠我的靈,方能成事。