新約用詞研究:末日、末世、末時和末期

End Times and Last Days in New Testament

蔡少琪

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聖經用語研究

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Wiki Lexicon & Concordance of the Greek NT

資料在發展和整理中

ἔσχατος  (last) 『末』的希臘文

συντέλεια  (end)(末後)的希臘文[1]

τέλος  (end)(末期)的希臘文

ὥρα  (hour)(時辰)的希臘文

ἡμέρα  (day)(日子,有用眾數和單數)的希臘文

αἰών  (age, world)(時代,世代)的希臘文

我們身處的新約時代被稱為『末後的日子』(the last days)(和合本有時候用『末世』來表達),這與主耶穌在約翰福音所說的『末日』(the last day)的表達是不同的。

Hoekema: “We find a most interesting illustration of the juxtaposition of the two ages in the New Testament use of the expressions ‘the last days’ and ‘the last day.’ As we have already seen, Peter in his sermon on the day of Pentecost said that the period which had been ushered in by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit constitutes the ‘last days’; in other words, that we are in the last days now. When the expression is found in the singular, however, (‘the last day’), it never refers to the present age but always to the age to come, usually to the Day of Judgment or the day of resurrection.”[2]

 

1.    『末日』 “The last day” (ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ)(in the last day):多是指主耶穌再來的日子,就是世界的末日。這詞主要是在約翰福音出現,特別是耶穌談到將來人要復活一事。

 

6:39

差我來者的意思就是:他所賜給我的,叫我一個也失落,在末日卻叫他復活。[3] The last day τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ

6:40

因為我父的意思是叫一切見子而信的人得永生,並且在末日我要叫他復活。[4]

6:44

若不是差我來的父吸引人,就沒有能到我這裡來的;到我這裡來的,在末日我要叫他復活。[5]

6:54

吃我肉、喝我血的人就有永生,在末日我要叫他復活。[6]

7:37

節期的末日,就是最大之日,耶穌站著高聲說:人若渴了,可以到我這裡來喝。[7]

11:24

馬大說:我知道在末日復活的時候,他必復活。[8]

12:48

棄絕我、不領受我話的人,有審判他的就是我所講的道在末日要審判他。[9]

 

2.    和合本新約的『末世』的表達有幾個不同的希臘文組合

其中形容主耶穌第一次來臨時,有用『末後的日子』(last days)[10]或『末後的時間』(last times)等表達。

1:2

就在這末世藉著他兒子曉諭我們;又早已立他為承受萬有的,也曾藉著他創造諸世界。[11] In these last days ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων

9:26

如果這樣,他從創世以來,就必多次受苦了。但如今在這末世顯現一次,把自己獻為祭,好除掉罪。[12] at the full end of the ages ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων

 

彼前

1:20

基督在創世以前是預先被神知道的,卻在這末世才為你們顯現。 [13] In the last times ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων

 

5:3

你們的金銀都長了鏽;那鏽要證明你們的不是,又要吃你們的肉,如同火燒。你們在這末世只知積錢財。[14] in the last days ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις

 

林前

10:11

他們遭遇這些事,都要作為戒;並且寫在經上,正是警戒我們這末世的人。[15] the end of the ages εἰς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων

 

其他有『末世』組合的經文,多是談到世界末日的日子。

 

提後

3:1

你該知道,末世必有危險的日子來到。[16] In last days

彼前

1:5

你們這因信蒙神能力保守的人,必能得著所預備、到末世要顯現的救恩[17] In last time

彼後

3:3

第一要緊的,該知道在末世必有好譏誚的人隨從自己的私慾出來譏誚說:[18] In last days

1:18

他們曾對你們說過末世必有好譏誚的人隨從自己不敬的私慾而行。[19] In last time

 

2:18

小子們哪,如今是末時了。[20]你們曾聽見說,那敵基督的要來;現在已經有好些敵基督的出來了,從此我們就知道如今是末時[21] Last hour ἐσχάτη ὥρα

 

 

1.    哥林多前書清楚地描寫出不同末世的表達:

我們是身處末世的人;最後的末期是耶穌再來;最後一點是死亡被毀滅。末次的號筒是復活的號筒。

 

林前

10:11

他們遭遇這些事,都要作為戒;並且寫在經上,正是警戒我們這末世的人。[22] the end of the ages εἰς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων

林前

15:24

再後,到了,那時基督既將一切執政的、掌權的、有能的、都毀滅了,就把國交與父神[23]the end τὸ τέλος

林前

15:26

末了所毀滅的仇敵,就是死。The last enemy to be destroyed is death.

 

林前

15:52

就在一霎時,眨眼之間,號筒末次響的時候。因號筒要響,死人要復活成為朽壞的,我們也要改變。[24]in the last trumpet

 

 

2.    聖經也用『世界的末了』和『末期』來形容世界末日和主再來。

 

13:39

撒稗子的仇敵就是魔鬼;收割的時候就是世界的末了;收割的人就是天使。[25]a end of the age συντέλεια αἰῶνός

13:40

將稗子出來用火焚燒,世界的末了也要如此。[26] in the end of the age ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος

13:49

世界的末了也要這樣。天使要出來,從義人中把惡人分別出來,in the end of the age[27] ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος

 

24:3

耶穌在橄欖山上坐著,門徒暗暗地來說:「請告訴我們,甚麼時候有這些事?你降臨和世界的末了有甚麼預兆呢?」the end of age[28]συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος

24:6

你們也要聽見打仗和打仗的風聲,總不要驚慌;因為這些事是必須有的,只是末期還沒有到。The end τὸ τέλος

24:14

這天國的福音要傳遍天下,對萬民作見證,然後末期才來到。」the end τὸ τέλος

 

 



[1] http://lexicon.katabiblon.com/index.php?lemma=συντέλεια

[2] Hoekema, The Bible and the Future, 19.

[3] th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra|

[4] h/| evsca,th| h`me,ra

[5] evn th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra|

[6] th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra

[7] YLT John 7:37 And in the last, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, 'If any one doth thirst, let him come unto me and drink;

BGT John 7:37 VEn de. th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra| th/| mega,lh| th/j e`orth/j ei`sth,kei o` VIhsou/j kai. e;kraxen le,gwn\ eva,n tij diya/| evrce,sqw pro,j me kai. pine,twÅ

[8] evn th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra|

[9] evn th/| evsca,th| h`me,ra|

[10] last days: Acts 2:17; 2 Tim 3:1; Heb 1:2; Jas 5:3; 2 Pet 3:3

2:17神說:在末後的日子,我要將我的靈澆灌凡有血氣的,你們的兒女要說豫言,你們的少年人要見異,老年人要作異夢

提後3:1你該知道,末世必有危險的日子來到。

NIV Acts 2:17 "'In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams.

BGT Acts 2:17 kai. e;stai evn tai/j evsca,taij h`me,raij( le,gei o` qeo,j( evkcew/ avpo. tou/ pneu,mato,j mou evpi. pa/san sa,rka( kai. profhteu,sousin oi` ui`oi. u`mw/n kai. ai` qugate,rej u`mw/n kai. oi` neani,skoi u`mw/n o`ra,seij o;yontai kai. oi` presbu,teroi u`mw/n evnupni,oij evnupniasqh,sontai\

NIV 2 Timothy 3:1 But mark this: There will be terrible times in the last days.

BGT 2 Timothy 3:1 Tou/to de. gi,nwske( o[ti evn evsca,taij h`me,raij evnsth,sontai kairoi. calepoi,\

NIV Hebrews 1:2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe.

BGT Hebrews 1:2 evpV evsca,tou tw/n h`merw/n tou,twn evla,lhsen h`mi/n evn ui`w/|( o]n e;qhken klhrono,mon pa,ntwn( diV ou- kai. evpoi,hsen tou.j aivw/naj\

NIV James 5:3 Your gold and silver are corroded. Their corrosion will testify against you and eat your flesh like fire. You have hoarded wealth in the last days.

BGT James 5:3 o` cruso.j u`mw/n kai. o` a;rguroj kati,wtai kai. o` ivo.j auvtw/n eivj martu,rion u`mi/n e;stai kai. fa,getai ta.j sa,rkaj u`mw/n w`j pu/ evqhsauri,sate evn evsca,taij h`me,raijÅ

NIV 2 Peter 3:3 First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires.

BGT 2 Peter 3:3 tou/to prw/ton ginw,skontej o[ti evleu,sontai evpV evsca,twn tw/n h`merw/n ÎevnÐ evmpaigmonh/| evmpai/ktai kata. ta.j ivdi,aj evpiqumi,aj auvtw/n poreuo,menoi

 

[11] In these last days evpV evsca,tou tw/n h`merw/n tou,twn

[12] At the full end of the ages evpi. suntelei,a| tw/n aivw,nwn

[13] In the last times evpV evsca,tou tw/n cro,nwn

[14] In last days evn evsca,taij h`me,raij

[15] the end of the ages  ta. te,lh tw/n aivw,nwn

[16] In last days: evn evsca,taij h`me,raij

[17] In last time evn kairw/| evsca,tw

[18] In last days evpV evsca,twn tw/n h`merw/n

[19] In last time evpV evsca,tou tou/ cro,nou

[20] It is the last hour evsca,th w[ra evsti,n

[21] o[ti evsca,th w[ra evsti,n

[22] the end of the ages  ta. te,lh tw/n aivw,nwn

[23] the end to. te,loj(

[24] evn th/| evsca,th| sa,lpiggi

[25] a full end of the age sunte,leia aivw/no,j

[26] in the end of the age evn th/| suntelei,a| tou/ aivw/noj

[27] evn th/| suntelei,a| tou/ aivw/noj

[28] suntelei,aj tou/ aivw/noj