聖經考古學近代突破和相關連結

Biblical Archaeology

 

蔡少琪

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整理中(第一次上載2012-8-18

 

考古是一個非常專業,但也有頗多爭議性的研究。無論針對某些古物是否真實或偽造,如何判斷年份,如何明白其中古代的語言或圖案,並如何在殘破的資料中有所分析,也會產生很多不同的結論和立場。無論如何,最近兩個世紀眾多聖經考古學的發現和研究,多方面印證了新舊約聖經所記載的內容的真實,並提供了豐富的聖經時代文化風俗資料。以下列出部分相關資料。

 

約一1:1-3 論到從起初原有的生命之道,就是我們所聽見、所看見、親眼看過、親手摸過的。這生命已經顯現出來,我們也看見過,現在又作見證,將原與父同在、且顯現與我們那永遠的生命傳給你們。我們將所看見、所聽見的傳給你們,使你們與我們相交。我們乃是與父並他兒子耶穌基督相交的。

1:1-4 提阿非羅大人哪,有好些人提筆作書,述說在我們中間所成就的事,是照傳道的人從起初親眼看見又傳給我們的。這些事我既從起頭都詳細考察了,就定意要按著次序寫給你,使你知道所學之道都是確實的

 

其中一批連結和簡短引文是引自 Jason Dulle 提供的聖經考古系列Biblical Archaeology Series,對初聖經考古學入門有很大的幫助。http://theosophical.wordpress.com/category/archaeology/

Biblical Archaeology Society: Bible History Daily;

鐘鵬章編寫:石頭還在呼喊!(新約篇) 石頭還在呼喊(舊約);Biblical archaeology, wiki;

陳崇基牧師的聖經考古學網站:略談聖經考古學之限制與貢獻聖經考古學的方法;

Pastor Paul 聖經考古學ppt 投影 2004; 考古、聖經與信仰;

李思敬「福音信仰與聖經考古學」講座精華(上)講座精華(一)講座精華(中)講座精華(三)

聖經考古學_互動百科;

聖經季刊: 舊約考古學(); 舊約考古學(); 舊約考古學()摩西的角色; 舊約考古學()考古學與南地的征服;

 

一個例子:The Pilate Stone 彼拉多石頭 Pilate Stone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1961年前,將主耶穌釘死的彼拉多,在聖經以外,沒有太多記錄,特別沒有什麼聖經以外的考古石碑和書卷的記錄。但1961年一批意大利的考古專家發現了『彼拉多石頭』後,這判主耶穌死刑的巡撫彼拉多被證實確有其人。

描述: 描述: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WovL6q-yDic/TzmjQCbAquI/AAAAAAAAA1U/YGrOdKpquGc/s1600/pilate2%5B1%5D.jpg描述: 描述: http://esoriano.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/pontius-pilate.jpg 描述: 描述: http://www.npr.org/programs/wesat/features/2006/apr/deadsea/pilate200.jpg

The partial inscription reads (conjectural letters in brackets):[3]

[DIS AUGUSTI]S TIBERIÉUM

[...PO]NTIUS PILATUS

[...PRAEF]ECTUS IUDA[EA]E

[...FECIT D]E[DICAVIT]

The translation from Latin to English for the inscription reads:

To the Divine Augusti [this] Tiberieum

...Pontius Pilate

...prefect of Judea

...has dedicated [this]

UNTIL 1961, there was no concrete archaeological evidence that Pontius Pilate, the fifth governor of Judaea, ever existed. There were accounts of him, of course, not least the accounts in the Gospels. But the records of his administration had disappeared completely: no papyri, no rolls, no tablets, no (authentic) letters to Rome. The Roman ruins that remained in Israel seemed to have nothing to do with him.Historical Notes: Pontius Pilate: a name set in stone

 

Biblical Archaeology: A Series

Biblical Archaeology 1: The Merneptah SteleIn 1896 archaeologists discovered a stele in Pharaoh Merneptah’s mortuary temple in Thebes,Egypt. “Canaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed…..” 重要性:這是聖經記錄以外,最早有記載『以色列』這種族名字。 The Merneptah Stele 的圖片:莫內他石碑(Merneptah Stele)。:三千年前的古碑文上提及「以色列被打敗」 (聖地14) Merneptah Stele - Wikipedia

描述: 描述: http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTdvtezOdsE8fuaxCAWSmy126u0ugobpYxC-vmk715pwQzM9c9zZQ&t=1

象形文字的以色列“記載在莫內他石碑"Israel" in the Merneptah Stele

 

Biblical Archaeology 2: The Pool at Gibeon基遍池 In 1956 the Pool of Gibeon was discovered six miles north of Jerusalem.  A tunnel runs from the pool to Jerusalem. It is an astonishing 80 feet deep, and was dug sometime before 1000 BC. 2 Samuel 2:13 they meet by the pool of Gibeon 撒下2:13基遍池旁與他們相遇;聖經地理辭典- 基遍池The Pool of Gibeon?基遍池the Pool of Gibeon 的圖片

描述: 描述: http://www.testimony-magazine.org/back/Special_Issues/Oct90/Gibeon.jpg

 

Biblical Archaeology 3: Pharaoh Shishak’s Invasion:代下12:2 羅波安王第五年,埃及王示撒上來攻打耶路撒冷

Shishak Relief: the invasion of the Holy Land by Egypt 925 B.C相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 4: The Moabite Stone (a.k.a. Mesha Stele):在聖經記載以外,是最早有『耶和華YHWH』名字的記載,並提到『大衛之家』 the “house of David.” 相關圖片YHWH的希伯來文字介紹

 

Biblical Archaeology 5: Three Shekel Ostracon相關圖片As Ashyahu the king[1] commanded you to give into the hand of [Ze]chariah silver of Tarshish for the House of Yahweh: three shekels.” It is dated between 835 and 796 BC, and thus likely refers to Solomon’s temple. 最早提到所羅門聖殿的考古資料。

 

Biblical Archaeology 6: House of David Inscription相關圖;提到大衛之家和一些以色列王;Tel Dan Stele—wiki

Biblical Archaeology 7: The Kurkh Monolith相關圖片I approached the city of Qarqar. I razed, destroyed and burned the city of Qarqar 2,000 chariots, and 10,000 troops of Ahab, the Israelite; these twelve kings he took as his allies.” 提到亞哈王

Biblical Archaeology 8: The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser相關圖片提及耶戶王下 9:2 到了那裡,要尋找寧示的孫子、約沙法的兒子耶戶

Biblical Archaeology 9: Seal of Shema, Servant of Jeroboam相關圖片::ESV 2 Kings 14:23 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, began to reign in Samaria, and he reigned forty-one years. 王下14:23 猶大王約阿施的兒子亞瑪謝十五年,以色列王約阿施的兒子耶羅波安在撒馬利亞登基,作王四十一年。提到耶羅波安王King Jeroboam II.

Biblical Archaeology 10: House of Yahweh Ostracon相關圖片:是提到所羅門聖殿第二早的考古資料 (the “3 shekel” ostracon 最早).

Biblical Archaeology 11: Jehoash Tablet相關圖片提到約阿施王重修聖殿王下12:6無奈到了約阿施王二十三年,祭司仍未修理殿的破壞之處。

Biblical Archaeology 12: Deir Alla Inscription (Balaam Inscription) 相關圖片提到巴蘭 22:5 [摩押王]他差遣使者往大河邊的毘奪去,到Balaam the son of Beor比珥的兒子巴蘭本鄉那裡,召巴蘭來,說:「有一宗民從埃及出來,遮滿地面,與我對居。

Biblical Archaeology 13: Pomegranate Inscription相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 14: Tiglath-Pileser III Inscriptions相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 15: Ahaz Bulla相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 16: Sargon II Inscriptions相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 17: The Lachish Reliefs相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 18: Sennacherib Prism相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 19: Hezekiah bulla相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 20: Hezekiahs Tunnel相關圖片

描述: 描述: http://www.reclaimingthemind.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/WorthTheWalk.jpg描述: 描述: http://www.generationword.com/images/israel_pictures/Jerusalem/hezekiah_tunnel/hezekiah_diagram.jpg 

Biblical Archaeology Humor

Biblical Archaeology 21: Siloam Inscription相關圖片

See the Great Isaiah Scroll from Qumran相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 22: Silver Amulet Scrolls of Ketef Hinnom相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 23: Babylonian Chronicles相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 24: Jehoiachins Rations相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 25: Lachish Letters相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 26: Baruch Bulla相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 27: Jehucal and Gedaliah Bullae相關圖片

Constantine I Coin相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 28: Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet相關圖片NIV Jeremiah 39:3 Nebo-Sarsekim 39:3 撒西金拉撒力

Evidence that the Lead Codices are Fakes相關圖片(這看為虛造的)

Biblical Archaeology 29: Nabonidus Cylinder相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 30: The Cyrus Cylinder相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 31: The Elephantine papyri相關圖片

Biblical Archaeology 32: The Dead Sea Scrolls相關圖片;死海古卷;死海古卷- 维基百科聖經與死海古卷

Biblical Archaeology 33: The Oxyrhynchus Papyri

Biblical Archaeology 34: Second Temple Stone Inscription

Biblical Archaeology 35: The Pool of Siloam

Biblical Archaeology 36: Lysanias Inscription

Biblical Archaeology 37: Capernaum Synagogue

Biblical Archaeology Humor II

Biblical Archaeology 38: Peters House in Capernaum

Biblical Archaeology 39: The Crucified Man

Biblical Archaeology 40: The Pilate StoneThe 彼拉多石頭的圖片Pilate Stone

Biblical Archaeology 41: Caiaphas Ossuary

Biblical Archaeology 42: The James Ossuary

Biblical Archaeology 43: The Gallio Inscription

Biblical Archaeology Humor III

Biblical Archaeology 44: Iconium was not in Lycaonia

Biblical Archaeology 45: 2000 Year Old Golden Bell

Dead Sea Scrolls Now Available for Online Viewing

Biblical Archaeology 47 (the last in the series…for now): Tomb of Philip

Biblical Archaeology 48 The Berlin Fragment: “Israel” May be Attested to Earlier than the Merneptah Stele

Archaeologists Uncover first extra-biblical reference to Bethlehem;相關圖片